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Nha Trang, Vietnam

Reid A.,University of Western Australia | Callan A.,Edith Cowan University | Stasinska A.,University of Western Australia | Heyworth J.,University of Western Australia | And 3 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2013

Background: Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) persist over long periods of time. Little is known about levels of OCPs in the plasma of non smoking pregnant women in Western Australia. The aim of this study was to (1) determine exposure concentrations in a sample of pregnant women in Western Australia; (2) to determine the significant environmental, lifestyle and activity contributors to maternal exposure concentrations of OCPs and (3) to compare the measured maternal exposure concentrations with those measured in other countries. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, 167 pregnant women located in rural and urban Western Australia provided plasma and answered questionnaires seeking information on lifestyle, demographics and the determinants of exposure to OCPs. Results: Of the 10 OCPs examined only HCB, β-HCH and p,p'DDE had concentrations above the limit of detection for more than 50% of samples. The mean level of HCB was 0.08. μg/L (range 0.005-2.0. μg/L), β-HCH 0.18. μg/L (range 0.04-3.16. μg/L) and p,p'DDE 1.05. μg/L, (range 0.03-17.04. μg/L). HCB concentrations were higher in women who ate seafood during pregnancy and who were older and lower among those with a history of breastfeeding. Concentrations of β-HCH were higher among women with a household income. <. $ 80,000 and lower among those with a history of breastfeeding. Concentrations of p,p'DDE were higher among women who lived within 1. km of industry and lower among those with a history of breastfeeding. Conclusions: Concentrations of pesticides were low in Western Australian mothers compared with international studies. © 2013 Elsevier B.V..

Nmor J.C.,Nagasaki University | Nmor J.C.,Delta State University, Abraka | Thanh H.T.,Nha Trang Pasteur Institute | Goto K.,Nagasaki University
International Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2011

Background: Measles remains a serious vaccine preventable cause of mortality in developing nations. Vietnam is aiming to achieve the level of immunity required to eliminate measles by maintaining a high coverage of routine first vaccinations in infants, routine second vaccinations at school entry and supplementary local campaigns in high-risk areas. Regular outbreaks of measles are reported, during 2005-2009. Methods: National measles case-based surveillance data collected during 2005-June 2009 was analyzed to assess the epidemiological trend and risk factors associated with measles outbreak in Vietnam. Results: Of the 36,282 measles suspected cases reported nationwide, only 7,086 cases were confirmed through laboratory examination. Although cyclical outbreaks occurred between 2005 and 2009, there was no definite trend in measles outbreaks during these periods. Overall, 2438 of measles confirmed cases were among children ≤5 years and 3068 cases were among people ≥16 years. The distribution with respect to gender skewed towards male (3667 cases) significant difference was not observed (P= 0.1693). Unsurprisingly, 4493 of the con-firmed cases had no history of vaccination (X 2 <0.01). The northern and highland regions were identified as the main endemic foci and the spatial distribution changed with time. The occurrence of cases, in a considerable proportion of vaccinated population, is not only a reflection of the high vaccination coverage in Vietnam but also portrays a possibility of less than 100% vaccine efficacy. More so, in order to prevent measles in adults, high-risk groups must be identified and catch-up for selected groups selected. Conclusions: This study therefore reinforces the need for continued improvement of surveillance system and to probe into the possible role of changes in age-distribution of cases if the effective control of measles is to be achieved. © Ivyspring International Publisher.

Stasinska A.,University of Western Australia | Heyworth J.,University of Western Australia | Reid A.,University of Western Australia | Callan A.,Edith Cowan University | And 4 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2014

PBDEs are a class of brominated flame retardants applied to consumer goods to reduce their flammability. These compounds are lipophilic, persistent and bioaccumulate through the food web. PBDEs have been detected in human blood, adipose tissue and breast milk. There are a small number of studies reporting concentrations of PBDEs in Australian populations. These indicate that concentrations are higher than in studies reporting concentrations from Europe but lower than those from Northern America. The aim of this paper was to determine the concentrations of PBDEs in the plasma of pregnant women participating in the Australian Maternal Exposure to Toxic Substances (AMETS) study in Western Australia. The samples comprised 164 pregnant women, aged 18years and over, who were non-smokers and not occupationally exposed to persistent substances. Participants provided blood samples at 38weeks gestation and these were analysed for five PBDE congeners. Maternal health and birth outcomes data were also obtained. The median for sum PBDE concentrations in plasma was 53.9pgg-1 (range 13.2 to 1390pgg-1ww). Concentrations were adjusted for the estimated plasma lipid content. The concentrations of σ5PBDE ranged from 2.44 to 258ngg-1 lipid with a median of 9.97ngg-1 lipid. BDE-47 was the dominant congener (median 21.4pgg-1, range <4.95 to 1030pgg-1) followed by BDE-153 (median 12.2pgg-1, range <2.94 to 353pgg-1). There were no significant associations between maternal, housing or dietary factors and concentrations of PBDEs in this study. Maternal PBDE concentrations were not associated with infant birth weight. This study builds upon previous Australian research and shows that concentrations in this sample of Western Australian women were higher than in parts of Europe. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Le Q.P.,Nha Trang Pasteur Institute | Ueda S.,University of Ryukyus | Nguyen T.N.H.,Nha Trang Pasteur Institute | Dao T.V.K.,Nha Trang Pasteur Institute | And 9 more authors.
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease | Year: 2015

Background: Contamination of food with multiantibiotic-resistant bacteria, particularly extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, is considered a potential source for the wide dissemination of ESBL-producing bacteria in communities. However, little is known about the extent of contamination of food with ESBL-producing bacteria in Vietnam. Objective: This study was conducted to assess the characteristics of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli isolated from retail meats and shrimp in Nha Trang, Vietnam. Materials and Methods: A total of 350 food samples (poultry [n=143], pork [n=147], and shrimp [n=60]) were purchased in July and November 2013 from a local market. ESBL-producing E. coli were isolated, and ESBL genotypes, phylogenetic groups, and antibiotic resistance profiles were determined. Results: The prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli in retail foods was 40.6%. β-Lactamase-encoding genes of the CTX-M-1 (50.7%), CTX-M-9 (41.5%), TEM (59.9%), and SHV (2.8%) groups were detected singly or in combination. The percentages of single ESBL isolates harboring CTX-M-1 or -9 plus TEM groups were 35.2% and 16.2%, respectively. B1 was the most prevalent phylogroup in ESBL isolates from pork (44.7%), poultry (55.9%), and shrimp (72.7%). B2 was the least prevalent (4.2% and 4.8% for pork and poultry isolates, respectively). The prevalence of multidrug resistance (MDR; resistance to ≥3 antimicrobial groups) in ESBL-producing E. coli isolated from food was 85.9%. Discussion and Conclusions: This is the first report of the characteristics of ESBL-producing E. coli in retail foods in a local city in Vietnam. Our findings indicate that retail foods are contaminated with ESBL-producing E. coli, of which many were MDR. Further monitoring and public health efforts targeting food administration are needed to control the spread of ESBL-producing bacteria in communities. © 2015, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2015.

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