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Shahzad K.,University of Punjab | Ali N.,NFC Institute of Engineering and Technology | Saleem M.,University of Punjab
Sustainable Engineering Forum 2014 - Core Programming Area at the 2014 AIChE Annual Meeting | Year: 2014

Fast pyrolysis is one of the prospective techniques employed to get energy and valuable chemicals from biomass. The yield and composition of pyrolysis products depend on the characteristics of feedstock and process operating parameters. A lab scale pyrolysis system consists of bubbling fluidized bed reactor (capacity 2kg/hr) is being designed. Effect of particle size and operating temperature on the fast pyrolysis of Pakistani maize stalk has been investigated. Experimentation was done with the temperature range of 360-540°C and particle size of 1-2 mm (SMD). Both parameters are found to have significant effect on the yield and characteristics of bio oil produced under the bubbling fluidized bed conditions. Bio oil yield increased with the increase of temperature followed by a decreasing trend. Maximum yield (41 wt. %) of bio oil was obtained at 540°C with particle size of around 1.0 mm. High temperatures resulted in high ratios of char and gas. GC-MS analysis of bio oil identified the large number of compounds including butanal, 2,3-Butanedione, Benzene, 1-Butanol, Acetic Acid, 3-Pentanone, Acetol, Toluene, 2-Butenal, 2-methyl-methyl pyruvate, Propanoic acid, Ethylbenzene, p-Xylene, Cyclopentanone, 2-methyl-o-xylene, 2-Butanone, 4-hydroxy-Furfural, 2-Furanmethanol, Benzene, 1,2,3-trimethyl-1-Heptanol, Benzaldehyde, 4-methyl-phenol, guaiacol, o-cresol, Naphthalene, Phenol, 2-methoxy-4-methyl-phenol, 2,4-dimethyl-phenol, 4-ethyl-naphthalene, 2-methyl-2-Furancarboxaldehyde, 5-(hydroxymethyl)-syringol, Vanillin, Ethanone,1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl), 3',5'-Dimethoxyacetophenone, 2-Propanone, 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl), 4-Hydroxy-2-methylacetophenone, 4-Hydroxy-3-methylacetophenone, Levoglucosan, syringaldehyde, Ethanone, 1-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl). Gas Chromatography analysis of non-condensable gases produced from the fast pyrolysis process is also being done and discussed. Source


Ali N.,NFC Institute of Engineering and Technology | Saleem M.,University of Punjab | e Kamil M.,University of Punjab | Shahzad K.,University of Punjab
Life Science Journal | Year: 2014

Characterization is important to measure the potential of biomass for its utilization in combustion or pyrolysis processes. Characterization study is carried out for cotton and maize stalk samples collected from the provinces of Punjab and Sindh, Pakistan. The proximate, ultimate and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) are performed. TGA is done in inert atmosphere at four heating rates i.e. 5, 10, 15, 20°C/ min. Residual weight is a function of heating rate and increases with heating rate. Higher residual weight is obtained for cotton stalk at different heating rates from 5 to 20°C/min. The values of energy of activation for cotton and maize stalk are 35 and 40 kJ/mol respectively which is calculated using isothermal conversion method assuming first order kinetics. Source


Aslam N.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Aslam N.,Virtual University of Pakistan | Aslam N.,NFC Institute of Engineering and Technology | Nadeem A.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | And 12 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2016

Proteins are the building blocks of cells of living creatures of all kingdoms. Due to pivotal role of protein structures in understanding evolutionary relationships and inferring their functions, the need to have a publically available databank was recognized and this results in establishment of protein data bank. This is a repository of protein structures in form of text files. Understanding and accessing protein structures in plain text files is very cumbersome job and a little bit difficult to understand the data as well. Several struggles have been made to transform protein structures of protein data bank in relational databases but all available relational databases of protein structures till now either do not provide complete information about the protein structures or they are not convenient to. Relational Protein Databank, presented in this paper, is a repository of all protein structures of protein databank stored in tables. A web interface has been provided to access various elements of protein structures in much more user friendly way. The structure of relational protein database has made data selection, insertion, deletion and editing very easy. RPDB is developed in MySQL which is an open source relational database management system. © 2016, University of Agriculture. All rights reserved. Source


Aslam N.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Aslam N.,NFC Institute of Engineering and Technology | Nadeem A.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Babar M.E.,Virtual University of Pakistan | And 8 more authors.
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2016

Background: Protein structural alignment is one of the most fundamental and crucial areas of research in the domain of computational structural biology. Comparison of a protein structure with known structures helps to classify it as a new or belonging to a known group of proteins. This, in turn, is useful to determine the function of protein, its evolutionary relationship with other protein molecules and grasping principles underlying protein architecture and folding. Results: A large number of protein structure alignment methods are available. Each protein structure alignment tool has its own strengths andweaknesses that need to be highlighted.We compared and presented results of six most popular and publically available servers for protein structure comparison. These web-based servers were compared with the respect to functionality (features provided by these servers) and accuracy (how well the structural comparison is performed). The CATH was used as a reference. The results showed that overall CE was top performer. DALI and PhyreStorm showed similar results whereas PDBeFold showed the lowest performance. In case of few secondary structural elements, CE, DALI and PhyreStorm gave 100% success rate. Conclusion: Overall none of the structural alignment servers showed 100% success rate. Studies of overall performance, effect of mainly alpha and effect of mainly beta showed consistent performance. CE, DALI, FatCat and PhyreStorm showed more than 90% success rate. © 2016 Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Rashad Javeed H.M.,NFC Institute of Engineering and Technology | Ibni Zamir M.S.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad
Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2013

Grains are the economical part of maize that demand proper management practices to achieve the crop potential. This study explored the influence of different tillage practices and poultry manure levels on the grain length, breadth, area, grains weight per cob and grain yield per m2of spring planted maize. The experiment was set up using Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with split plot arrangement having four tillage practices as main plot treatments; zero tillage, minimum tillage, conventional tillage and deep tillage. Sub plot treatments were three poultry manure levels; control (no poultry manure), poultry manure @ 5 Mg ha-1 and poultry manure @ 10 Mg ha-1. Data indicated that the deep tillage practice significantly improved (p>0.05) the length, breath and area of maize grains over the other tillage practices in both years of study. Significantly higher grain yield was produced in deep tillage practice as compared to conventional, minimum and zero tillage practices. Increasing order of poultry manure dose treatments produced the bold and healthy seeds over the control treatment. A positive correlation between grain yield per m2 vs physical properties of maize grain and grains weight per cob was recorded. The study concludes that the productive effect of integrated use of poultry manure and chemical fertilizers application on the maize grain yield. Source

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