Time filter

Source Type

Shahzad K.,University of Punjab | Ali N.,NFC Institute of Engineering and Technology | Saleem M.,University of Punjab
Sustainable Engineering Forum 2014 - Core Programming Area at the 2014 AIChE Annual Meeting | Year: 2014

Fast pyrolysis is one of the prospective techniques employed to get energy and valuable chemicals from biomass. The yield and composition of pyrolysis products depend on the characteristics of feedstock and process operating parameters. A lab scale pyrolysis system consists of bubbling fluidized bed reactor (capacity 2kg/hr) is being designed. Effect of particle size and operating temperature on the fast pyrolysis of Pakistani maize stalk has been investigated. Experimentation was done with the temperature range of 360-540°C and particle size of 1-2 mm (SMD). Both parameters are found to have significant effect on the yield and characteristics of bio oil produced under the bubbling fluidized bed conditions. Bio oil yield increased with the increase of temperature followed by a decreasing trend. Maximum yield (41 wt. %) of bio oil was obtained at 540°C with particle size of around 1.0 mm. High temperatures resulted in high ratios of char and gas. GC-MS analysis of bio oil identified the large number of compounds including butanal, 2,3-Butanedione, Benzene, 1-Butanol, Acetic Acid, 3-Pentanone, Acetol, Toluene, 2-Butenal, 2-methyl-methyl pyruvate, Propanoic acid, Ethylbenzene, p-Xylene, Cyclopentanone, 2-methyl-o-xylene, 2-Butanone, 4-hydroxy-Furfural, 2-Furanmethanol, Benzene, 1,2,3-trimethyl-1-Heptanol, Benzaldehyde, 4-methyl-phenol, guaiacol, o-cresol, Naphthalene, Phenol, 2-methoxy-4-methyl-phenol, 2,4-dimethyl-phenol, 4-ethyl-naphthalene, 2-methyl-2-Furancarboxaldehyde, 5-(hydroxymethyl)-syringol, Vanillin, Ethanone,1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl), 3',5'-Dimethoxyacetophenone, 2-Propanone, 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl), 4-Hydroxy-2-methylacetophenone, 4-Hydroxy-3-methylacetophenone, Levoglucosan, syringaldehyde, Ethanone, 1-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl). Gas Chromatography analysis of non-condensable gases produced from the fast pyrolysis process is also being done and discussed.


Ali N.,NFC Institute of Engineering and Technology | Saleem M.,University of Punjab | e Kamil M.,University of Punjab | Shahzad K.,University of Punjab
Life Science Journal | Year: 2014

Characterization is important to measure the potential of biomass for its utilization in combustion or pyrolysis processes. Characterization study is carried out for cotton and maize stalk samples collected from the provinces of Punjab and Sindh, Pakistan. The proximate, ultimate and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) are performed. TGA is done in inert atmosphere at four heating rates i.e. 5, 10, 15, 20°C/ min. Residual weight is a function of heating rate and increases with heating rate. Higher residual weight is obtained for cotton stalk at different heating rates from 5 to 20°C/min. The values of energy of activation for cotton and maize stalk are 35 and 40 kJ/mol respectively which is calculated using isothermal conversion method assuming first order kinetics.


Ali N.,NFC Institute of Engineering and Technology | Saleem M.,University of Punjab | Shahzad K.,University of Punjab | Khan W.A.,NFC Institute of Engineering and Technology
Life Science Journal | Year: 2014

Agricultural residues can be converted in the biofuels to fulfil the world energy demands and achieve the targets set by different countries to replace fossil fuels with renewable resources. Fast pyrolysis of cotton stalk, obtained from agriculture fields of Punjab, Pakistan, is being investigated. A Lab Scale bubbling fluidized bed fast pyrolysis system is designed and fabricated. The operating parameters of the fluidized bed reactor are selected on the basis of the study of hydrodynamics of cold model and TGA analysis. Experiments are conducted over a range of operating conditions. Yield of char and gases are measured. The products are analyzed on FTIR and GC-MS to investigate the functional groups and compounds present in the pyrolysis liquid derived from the cotton stalks. GCMS analysis of pyrolysis liquid has shown number of peaks with the compounds identified as acetone, benzene, 3- methyl pentane, 2,2-dimethylbutane, 3,5- dimethyloctane, 2-methylhexanoic acid, 1,2- benzene dicarboxylic acid, Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate whereas GC analysis of exhaust gas has shown three peaks containing gases H2, CO2 and n-butane. Effect of temperature is investigated on the yield of char and the no. of compounds present in the pyrolysis of liquid along with their functional groups.


Pervez M.T.,Virtual Computer | Pervez M.T.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Babar M.E.,The University of Lahore | Nadeem A.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | And 9 more authors.
Evolutionary Bioinformatics | Year: 2015

IVisTMSA is a software package of seven graphical tools for multiple sequence alignments. MSApad is an editing and analysis tool. It can load 409% more data than Jalview, STRAP, CINEMA, and Base-by-Base. MSA comparator allows the user to visualize consistent and inconsistent regions of reference and test alignments of more than 21-MB size in less than 12 seconds. MSA comparator is 5,200% efficient and more than 40% efficient as compared to BALiBASE c program and FastSP, respectively. MSA reconstruction tool provides graphical user interfaces for four popular aligners and allows the user to load several sequence files at a time. FASTA generator converts seven formats of alignments of unlimited size into FASTA format in a few seconds. MSA ID calculator calculates identity matrix of more than 11,000 sequences with a sequence length of 2,696 base pairs in less than 100 seconds. Tree and Distance Matrix calculation tools generate phylogenetic tree and distance matrix, respectively, using neighbor joining% identity and BLOSUM 62 matrix. © the authors, publisher and licensee Libertas Academica Limited.


Aslam N.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Aslam N.,Virtual University of Pakistan | Aslam N.,NFC Institute of Engineering and Technology | Nadeem A.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | And 12 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2016

Proteins are the building blocks of cells of living creatures of all kingdoms. Due to pivotal role of protein structures in understanding evolutionary relationships and inferring their functions, the need to have a publically available databank was recognized and this results in establishment of protein data bank. This is a repository of protein structures in form of text files. Understanding and accessing protein structures in plain text files is very cumbersome job and a little bit difficult to understand the data as well. Several struggles have been made to transform protein structures of protein data bank in relational databases but all available relational databases of protein structures till now either do not provide complete information about the protein structures or they are not convenient to. Relational Protein Databank, presented in this paper, is a repository of all protein structures of protein databank stored in tables. A web interface has been provided to access various elements of protein structures in much more user friendly way. The structure of relational protein database has made data selection, insertion, deletion and editing very easy. RPDB is developed in MySQL which is an open source relational database management system. © 2016, University of Agriculture. All rights reserved.


Aslam N.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Aslam N.,NFC Institute of Engineering and Technology | Nadeem A.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Babar M.E.,Virtual University of Pakistan | And 8 more authors.
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2016

Background: Protein structural alignment is one of the most fundamental and crucial areas of research in the domain of computational structural biology. Comparison of a protein structure with known structures helps to classify it as a new or belonging to a known group of proteins. This, in turn, is useful to determine the function of protein, its evolutionary relationship with other protein molecules and grasping principles underlying protein architecture and folding. Results: A large number of protein structure alignment methods are available. Each protein structure alignment tool has its own strengths andweaknesses that need to be highlighted.We compared and presented results of six most popular and publically available servers for protein structure comparison. These web-based servers were compared with the respect to functionality (features provided by these servers) and accuracy (how well the structural comparison is performed). The CATH was used as a reference. The results showed that overall CE was top performer. DALI and PhyreStorm showed similar results whereas PDBeFold showed the lowest performance. In case of few secondary structural elements, CE, DALI and PhyreStorm gave 100% success rate. Conclusion: Overall none of the structural alignment servers showed 100% success rate. Studies of overall performance, effect of mainly alpha and effect of mainly beta showed consistent performance. CE, DALI, FatCat and PhyreStorm showed more than 90% success rate. © 2016 Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Akhtar K.,NFC Institute of Engineering and Technology | Hussain S.,NFC Institute of Engineering and Technology | Khan R.U.,University of Punjab | Ijaz A.,University of Punjab
Life Science Journal | Year: 2013

Pyrolysis behavior of low grade Pakistani coals was done using thermo gravimetric analyzer or TGA. The effect of changing the rate of heating was analyzed at for the pyrolysis process. The particle size was also varied and its effect was also investigated. Kinetic parameters were determined for different heating rates. This research also investigated the combustion behavior of low grade coals, from Balochistan like Duki and Chamalung, in a Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) riser. This is perhaps the first local practical experience of evaluating combustion performance of local coal blends in a CFB. The effects of varying the primary air and feed rate on emissions were analyzed. The experiments were carried out in a hot CFB installed at NFC-IET, Multan. The experiments showed that the temperature rose to about 900°C at the top of the CFB in quick time. The temperature dependence on combustion and emission were also identified.


Rashad Javeed H.M.,NFC Institute of Engineering and Technology | Ibni Zamir M.S.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad
Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2013

Grains are the economical part of maize that demand proper management practices to achieve the crop potential. This study explored the influence of different tillage practices and poultry manure levels on the grain length, breadth, area, grains weight per cob and grain yield per m2of spring planted maize. The experiment was set up using Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with split plot arrangement having four tillage practices as main plot treatments; zero tillage, minimum tillage, conventional tillage and deep tillage. Sub plot treatments were three poultry manure levels; control (no poultry manure), poultry manure @ 5 Mg ha-1 and poultry manure @ 10 Mg ha-1. Data indicated that the deep tillage practice significantly improved (p>0.05) the length, breath and area of maize grains over the other tillage practices in both years of study. Significantly higher grain yield was produced in deep tillage practice as compared to conventional, minimum and zero tillage practices. Increasing order of poultry manure dose treatments produced the bold and healthy seeds over the control treatment. A positive correlation between grain yield per m2 vs physical properties of maize grain and grains weight per cob was recorded. The study concludes that the productive effect of integrated use of poultry manure and chemical fertilizers application on the maize grain yield.


Ali O.,NFC Institute of Engineering and Technology | Nasir F.,NFC Institute of Engineering and Technology | Tahir A.A.,NFC Institute of Engineering and Technology
Proceedings of the 14th IEEE International Multitopic Conference 2011, INMIC 2011 | Year: 2011

We focus on Cyclostationary spectrum sensing technique in order to increase the spectrum efficiency which will become essential for cognitive radios. Static allocation of the frequency spectrum does not meet the growing demands of current wireless technology that's why spectrum sensing and dynamic allocation will become indispensible part of future wireless networks. Cognitive radio can sense the spectrum and detect the idle frequency bands which are allocated to primary users, if not; secondary users can be allocated unoccupied frequency bands in order to avoid any interference. Our primary goal is to develop efficient way of sensing holes for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems for spectrum sharing regimes. Using Cyclostationary features we are able to detect primary user. Here Cyclostationary features for primary user detection are exploited through AWGN communication channel with various noise levels. We have considered an OFDM system and exploited its parameters to examine how it relates to primary user detection and its detection probability with various different noise levels is calculated. © 2011 IEEE.

Loading NFC Institute of Engineering and Technology collaborators
Loading NFC Institute of Engineering and Technology collaborators