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Lee B.-K.,Gyeong Sang Bukdo Government Public Institute of Health and Environment | Hwang H.-W.,Kyungpook National University | Qureshi T.I.,NFC Institute of Engineering and Technological Training | Kim Y.-J.,Kyungpook National University
Journal of the Chemical Society of Pakistan | Year: 2010

Leaching characteristics of industrial sludge and fly ash using Korean Standard Leaching Procedure (KSLP) and Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP) were studied. Possibilities of re-adsorption of heavy metal ions on the surface of sludge and ash during the course of leaching were also investigated. KSLP looked relatively more aggressive than the TCLP in leaching heavy metal ions. Concentrations of metal ions leached in both the methods, however, were found very low in comparison to the concentration of ions present in the original samples. In case of sludge, heavy metal ions showed relatively high rate of leaching at 4th and 5th stages of sequential extraction while ash showed high rate of leaching at the first three stages of extraction. Some of the concentrations of heavy metal ions leached out in the tests also found to be adsorbed on the surface of sludge and ash Heavy metal ions present in high concentrations in the sample showed lower rate of adsorption than their leaching rate. No distinct difference in the results of KSLP and TCLP was observed However, variations in the leaching results could be due to the different nature of hazardous waste and leaching conditions. More information like kinetics of leaching, mineralogical characteristics of waste and site characteristics of landfill were required to predict more accurate leaching behavior of ions in natural conditions. Source


Kim Y.-J.,Kyungpook National University | Choi J.-H.,Kyungpook National University | Kim J.-H.,Kyungpook National University | Lee C.-S.,Uiduk University | Qureshi T.I.,NFC Institute of Engineering and Technological Training
Journal of the Chemical Society of Pakistan | Year: 2010

Industrial wastewater sludge was successfully converted into a carbonized product of maximum environmental benefits. Carbonization was carried out to determine an optimum temperature conditions in order to get low temperature carbonization product of required characteristics. Stack gas emissions throughout the course of carbonization and fuel quality characteristics of the carbonized product were also monitored. Analyses of the carbonized product for its possible applications as farm land additive and as green fuel utilization were also conducted. Main objective of the study was to get comparative study of the carbonized sludge; a by-product of industrial wastewater treatment plant, with the sludge stabilized by other heat treatment techniques. Source


Pervez M.T.,Virtual Computer | Pervez M.T.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Babar M.E.,The University of Lahore | Nadeem A.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | And 9 more authors.
Evolutionary Bioinformatics | Year: 2014

A comparison of 10 most popular Multiple Sequence Alignment (MSA) tools, namely, MUSCLE, MAFFT(L-INS-i), MAFFT (FFT-NS-2), T-Cofee, ProbCons, SATe, Clustal Omega, Kalign, Multalin, and Dialign-TX is presented. We also focused on the signifcance of some implementations embedded in algorithm of each tool. Based on 10 simulated trees of diferent number of taxa generated by R, 400 known alignments and sequence fles were constructed using indel-Seq-Gen. A total of 4000 test alignments were generated to study the efect of sequence length, indel size, deletion rate, and insertion rate. Results showed that alignment quality was highly dependent on the number of deletions and insertions in the sequences and that the sequence length and indel size had a weaker efect. Overall, ProbCons was consistently on the top of list of the evaluated MSA tools. SATe, being little less accurate, was 529.10% faster than ProbCons and 236.72% faster than MAFFT(L-INS-i). Among other tools, Kalign and MUSCLE achieved the highest sum of pairs. We also considered BALiBASE benchmark datasets and the results relative to BAliBASE- and indel-Seq-Gen-generated alignments were consistent in the most cases. © the authors, publisher and licensee Libertas Academica Limited. Source


Kim Y.-J.,Kyungpook National University | Kim P.-J.,Kyungpook National University | Kim J.-H.,Daegu Health College | Lee C.-S.,Korea University | Qureshi T.I.,NFC Institute of Engineering and Technological Training
Journal of the Chemical Society of Pakistan | Year: 2012

Possibilities of recycling of waste bread as culture media for efficient biological treatment of wastewater were investigated. In order to get the highest growth of microorganism for increased contaminants' removal efficiency of the system, different compositions of waste bread and skim milk with and without adding Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC) were tested. Mixed waste bread compositions with added PAC showed relatively higher number of microorganisms than the compositions without added PAC. A composition of 40% mixed waste bread and 60% skim milk produced highest number of microorganisms with subsequent increased contaminants' removal efficiency of the system. Contrast alone showed lower contaminants' removal efficiency than mixed bread compositions. Use of waste bread in the composition of skim milk reduced cost of using foreign source of nutrients in biological treatment of wastewater and also facilitated waste bread management through recycling. Source


Kim Y.-J.,Kyungpook National University | Kim J.-H.,Kyungpook National University | Thi L.D.,Kyungpook National University | Qureshi T.I.,NFC Institute of Engineering and Technological Training
Journal of the Chemical Society of Pakistan | Year: 2011

High recovery of cadmium metal from household spent nickel cadmium batteries through hydrometallurgical process on small scale was conducted. Recovery of metal through separation of leached metal ions using ion exchange resin was examined. Hydrochloric acid (4.0 M) solution showed relatively better leaching potential than other acids, however, considering overall efficiency of the process, sulphruic acid was suggested to be employed as leaching and regeneration reagent in this study. Variations in solid/liquid ratio did not show a significant difference in the amount of heavy metal ions leached out; however, leaching temperature greatly affected the leaching efficiency. Changes in bed volume of the resin greatly influenced the sorption of cadmium metal ions while concentration and flow rate of the regeneration reagent were found important parameters affecting regeneration capacity of the resin. Source

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