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Wang L.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Wuyun T.-N.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Du H.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Wang D.,Nextomics Biosciences Co. | Cao D.,Nextomics Biosciences Co.
Tree Genetics and Genomes | Year: 2016

Eucommia ulmoides is an important traditional medicinal plant that is used for the production of locative Eucommia rubber. In this study, the complete chloroplast (cp) genome sequence of E. ulmoides was obtained by total DNA sequencing; this is the first cp genome sequence of the order Garryales. The cp genome of E. ulmoides was 163,341 bp long and included a pair of inverted repeat (IR) regions (31,300 bp), one large single copy (LSC) region (86,592 bp), and one small single copy (SSC) region (14,149 bp). The genome structure and GC content were similar to those of typical angiosperm cp genomes and contained 115 unique genes, including 80 protein-coding genes, 31 transfer RNA (tRNAs), and four ribosomal RNA (rRNAs). Compared with the entire cp genome sequence, three unique genome rearrangements were observed in the LSC region. Moreover, compared with the Sesamum and Nicotiana cp genomes, E. ulmoides contained no indels in the IR regions, and variable regions were identified in noncoding regions. The E. ulmoides cp genome showed extreme expansion at the IR/SSC boundary owing to the integration of an additional complete gene, ycf1. Twenty-nine simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified in the E. ulmoides cp genome. In addition, 36 protein-coding genes were used for phylogenetic inference, supporting a sister relationship between E. ulmoides and Aucuba, which belongs to Euasterids I. In summary, we described the complete cp genome sequence of E. ulmoides; this information will be useful for phylogenetic and evolutionary studies. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Gan R.,Wuhan University | Wu X.,Wuhan University | Wu X.,Hubei University of Medicine | He W.,Wuhan University | And 8 more authors.
Scientific Reports | Year: 2014

The modification of DNA by phosphorothioate (PT) occurs when the non-bridging oxygen in the sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA is replaced with sulfur. This DNA backbone modification was recently discovered and is governed by the dnd ABCDE genes in a diverse group of bacteria and archaea. However, the biological function of DNA PT modifications is poorly understood. In this study, we employed the RNA-seq analysis to characterize the global transcriptional changes in response to PT modifications. Our results show that DNA without PT protection is susceptible to DNA damage caused by thedndFGHIgene products. The DNA double-stranded breaks then trigger the SOS response, cell filamentation and prophage induction. Heterologous expression of dndBCDEconferring DNA PT modifications at GPSA and GPST prevented the damage in Salmonella enterica. Our data provide insights into the physiological role of the DNA PT system.

Zhang J.-Y.,Nanjing Southeast University | Guan R.,Nanjing Southeast University | Zhang H.-J.,Wuxi Environmental Monitoring Center | Li H.,CAS Wuhan Institute of Hydrobiology | And 7 more authors.
Standards in Genomic Sciences | Year: 2016

The cyanobacterial genus Microcystis is well known as the main group that forms harmful blooms in water. A strain of Microcystis, M. panniformis FACHB1757, was isolated from Meiliang Bay of Lake Taihu in August 2011. The whole genome was sequenced using PacBio RS II sequencer with 48-fold coverage. The complete genome sequence with no gaps contained a 5,686,839 bp chromosome and a 38,683 bp plasmid, which coded for 6,519 and 49 proteins, respectively. Comparison with strains of M. aeruginosa and some other water bloom-forming cyanobacterial species revealed large-scale structure rearrangement and length variation at the genome level along with 36 genomic islands annotated genome-wide, which demonstrates high plasticity of the M. panniformis FACHB1757 genome and reveals that Microcystis has a flexible genome evolution. © 2016 Zhang et al.

Liu Z.,Wuhan Institute of Technology | Zhu H.,Wuhan Institute of Technology | Liu Y.,Wuhan Institute of Technology | Kuang J.,Wuhan Institute of Technology | And 5 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2016

Background: The sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) is widely cultivated in China for its edible rhizomes and seeds. Traditional plant breeding methods have been used to breed cultivars with increased yields and quality of rhizomes and seeds with limited success. Currently, the available genetic maps and molecular markers in lotus are too limited to be useful for molecular genetics based breeding programs. However, the development of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies has enabled large-scale identification of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for genetic map construction. In this study, we constructed an SNP-based high-density genetic map for cultivated lotus using double digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq). Results: An F2 population of 96 individuals was derived from a cross between the rhizome lotus cultivar 'Juwuba' (male parent) and the seed lotus cultivar 'Mantianxing' (female parent). Genomic DNAs from this population were digested with the restriction enzymes EcoRI and MspI and then sequenced. In total, 133.65 Gb of raw data containing 1,088,935,610 pair-end reads were obtained. The coverage of reads on a reference genome was 7.2 % for the female parent, 6.56 % for the male parent, and 1.46 % for F2 individuals. From these reads, 10,753 valid SNP markers were used for genetic map construction. Finally, 791 bin markers (so-segregated adjacent SNPs treated as a bin marker), consisting of 8,971 SNP markers, were sorted into 8 linkage groups (LGs) that spanned 581.3 cM, with an average marker interval of 0.74 cM. A total of 809 genome sequence scaffolds, covering about 565.9 cM of the wild sacred lotus genome, were anchored on the genetic map, accounting for 70.6 % of the genome assembly. Conclusions: This study reports the large-scale discovery of SNPs between cultivars of rhizome and seed lotus using a ddRADseq library combined with NGS. These SNPs have been used to construct the first high-density genetic map for cultivated lotus that can serve as a genomic reference and will facilitate genetic mapping of important traits in the parental cultivars. © 2016 The Author(s).

Liu D.,Hunan Agricultural University | Liu D.,State Key Laboratory of Sub Health Intervention Technology | Gong J.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Gong J.,Nextomics Biosciences Co. | And 19 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi or Ling Zhi) is one of the most famous Traditional Chinese Medicines and has been widely used in the treatment of various human diseases in Asia countries. It is also a fungus with strong wood degradation ability with potential in bioenergy production. However, genes, pathways and mechanisms of these functions are still unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings: The genome of G. lucidum was sequenced and assembled into a 39.9 megabases (Mb) draft genome, which encoded 12,080 protein-coding genes and ~83% of them were similar to public sequences. We performed comprehensive annotation for G. lucidum genes and made comparisons with genes in other fungi genomes. Genes in the biosynthesis of the main G. lucidum active ingredients, ganoderic acids (GAs), were characterized. Among the GAs synthases, we identified a fusion gene, the N and C terminal of which are homologous to two different enzymes. Moreover, the fusion gene was only found in basidiomycetes. As a white rot fungus with wood degradation ability, abundant carbohydrate-active enzymes and ligninolytic enzymes were identified in the G. lucidum genome and were compared with other fungi. Conclusions/Significance: The genome sequence and well annotation of G. lucidum will provide new insights in function analyses including its medicinal mechanism. The characterization of genes in the triterpene biosynthesis and wood degradation will facilitate bio-engineering research in the production of its active ingredients and bioenergy. © 2012 Liu et al.

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