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Henley S.J.,M Solv Ltd. | Kula M.,M Solv Ltd. | Brunton A.N.,M Solv Ltd. | Chan C.W.A.,Intrinsiq Materials | And 2 more authors.
2015 IEEE 42nd Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, PVSC 2015 | Year: 2015

A process to screen print and laser sinter copper metal grids on CIGS photovoltaic (PV) modules is presented. Localized laser sintering using a high-speed galvanometer scanner is used to render printed lines conductive at beam speed in excess of 1 m/s. It is shown that the laser process does not reduce the shunt resistance of mini-modules printed with all-copper grids, indicating that no thermal damage occurs due to the laser process. Considering the significant cost saving introduced by using copper paste, replacing silver grids with copper is shown as an attractive proposition for reducing the cost-per-watt of thin-film PV. © 2015 IEEE. Source


Insignares-Cuello C.,Catalonia Institute for Energy Research IREC | Fontane X.,Catalonia Institute for Energy Research IREC | Sanchez-Gonzalez Y.,Catalonia Institute for Energy Research IREC | Placidi M.,Catalonia Institute for Energy Research IREC | And 7 more authors.
Physica Status Solidi (A) Applications and Materials Science | Year: 2015

The increasing importance of the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 based thin films photovoltaic industry claims for the development of new assessment and monitoring tools to answer the needs existing in the improvement of the control of the processes involved in the production of solar cells modules. In this frame, a strong interest has been given to the developmentmethodologies for the assessment of the CIGS absorber, nevertheless advanced optical tools for the characterization of the other layers in the solar cells are still missing. In this work,we report a non-destructive optical methodology based on resonant Raman concepts that has been developed for the characterization ofAl doped ZnO layers (AZO) that are used as window layer in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells. Doping the ZnO layer with Al leads to the presence of a characteristic defect induced band at 510cm-1 spectral region. The correlation of the relative intensity of this band with the resistivity of the layers provides a fast and reliable tool for their electrical monitoring. Analysis of solar cells fabricated with layers of different conductivities has allowed demonstration at cell level of the proposed methodology for the determination of efficiency losses related to degradation of the resistivity of the AZO layers.(Graph Presented). © 2014 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. Source


Insignares-Cuello C.,Catalonia Institute for Energy Research IREC | Izquierdo-Roca V.,Catalonia Institute for Energy Research IREC | Lopez-Garcia J.,Catalonia Institute for Energy Research IREC | Calvo-Barrio L.,University of Barcelona | And 8 more authors.
Solar Energy | Year: 2014

This work reports the optical non-destructive assessment of the relative Ga content in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorbers synthesized from electrodeposited precursors using combined photoluminescence (PL) and Raman scattering. Comparison of the PL measurements with the Auger Spectroscopy characterization of the layers has allowed performing a calibration of the dependence of the PL peak energy on the absorber composition. This opens the possibility for the nondestructive chemical assessment of the absorbers synthesized with these low cost processes. Extension of these measurements using a confocal microscope demonstrates their viability for the nondestructive quantitative chemical profiling of the layers. Correlation of these data with Raman spectra measured with the same experimental setup allows deepening in the interpretation of the spectra, giving additional information related to the microcrystalline quality of the layers and the presence of secondary phases. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Izquierdo-Roca V.,Iuniversitat Of Barcelona | Saucedo E.,Catalonia Institute for Energy Research IREC | Jaime-Ferrer J.S.,NEXCIS Photovoltaic Technology | Fontane X.,Catalonia Institute for Energy Research IREC | And 5 more authors.
Journal of the Electrochemical Society | Year: 2011

This work reports the in-situ analysis of the electrochemical growth of CuInSe 2 precursors for the production of low cost CuIn(S,Se) 2 based solar cells by Raman scattering measurements performed at real time conditions. The measured data point out the existence of three stages in the growth of the layers: (a) initial stage characterised by the preferential growth of elemental Se and Cu rich phases, (b) intermediate stage where the preferential growth of the main CuInSe 2 phase takes place, and (c) final stage with a gradual increase in the spectral contributions from Se and CuSe secondary phases. This correlates with the spectral evolution of Cu poor ordered vacancy compound phases present in the layers, in spite of the overall Cu excess conditions typically used in these processes. These in-situ measurements allow elucidating the main growth mechanisms involved in the electrochemical synthesis of CuInSe 2. Existence of different growth stages during the process determines a non-homogeneous in-depth distribution of the secondary phases in the deposited layers that are determining for the final efficiency of the devices. © 2011 The Electrochemical Society. Source


Romanyuk Y.E.,Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology | Hagendorfer H.,Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology | Stucheli P.,Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology | Fuchs P.,Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology | And 10 more authors.
Advanced Functional Materials | Year: 2015

Solution processing of inorganic thin films has become an important thrust in material research community because it offers low-cost and high-throughput deposition of various functional coatings and devices. Especially inorganic thin film solar cells - macroelectronic devices that rely on consecutive deposition of layers on large-area rigid and flexible substrates - could benefit from solution approaches in order to realize their low-cost nature. This article critically reviews existing deposition approaches of functional layers for chalco-genide solar cells with an extension to other thin film technologies. Only true solutions of readily available metal salts in appropriate solvents are considered without the need of pre-fabricated nanoparticles. By combining three promising approaches, an air-stable Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cell with efficiency of 13.8% is demonstrated where all constituent layers (except the metal back contact) are processed from solutions. Notably, water is employed as the solvent in all steps, highlighting the potential for safe manufacturing with high utilization rates. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

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