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Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY.2013.7.2.3 | Award Amount: 62.80M | Year: 2014

A group of eight Transmission System Operators with a generator company, manufacturers and research organisations, propose 5 demonstration projects to remove, in 4 years, several barriers which prevent large-scale penetration of renewable electricity production in the European transmission network. The full scale demonstrations led by industry aim at proving the benefits of novel technologies coupled with innovative system integration approaches: - A scaled down model of generators connected to a HVDC link is used within a new testing facility to validate novel control strategies to improve the interaction between HVDC links and wind turbine generators - The implementation of a full scale, hardware-in-the-loop test setup in collaboration with worldwide market leaders of HVDC-VSC technology explores the interactions of HVDC VSC multiterminal control systems to validate their interoperable operations - Strategies to upgrade existing HVDC interconnectors are validated with the help of innovative components, architecture and system integration performances, to ensure higher RES penetration and more efficient cross border exchanges. - Full scale experiments and pilot projects at real life scale of both installation and operation of AC overhead line repowering technologies are carried out to show how existing corridors can see their existing capacity increase within affordable investments. - The technical feasibility of integrating DC superconducting links within an AC meshed network (using MgB2 as the critical material) will be tested at prototype scale, thus proving that significant performance improvements have been reached to enable commercialization before 2030 The experimental results will be integrated into European impact analyses to show the scalability of the solutions: routes for replication will be provided with benefits for the pan European transmission network and the European electricity market as soon as 2018, in line with the SET plan objectives


Lervik J.K.,Sintef | Iversen O.,Nexans Norway AS | Nysveen A.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Proceedings of the International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference | Year: 2015

Hydrate management by direct electric heating (DEH) has been in use for 15 years. The system has been continuously improved and adapted to the specific requirements during the development of new fields. Presently the system is designed for around 5 years of usage during the lifetime of the field. Due to demand for continuously heating, deeper water and reduced costs a promising concept with reduced cable dimensions and reduced risk for ac corrosion is being considered. The development work considers theoretical studies, laboratory tests at relevant pressures and field tests. Accelerated lifetime tests are important regarding qualification of power cable electrical insulation system. Copyright © 2015 by the International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers (ISOPE).


Sonerud B.,Nexans Norway AS | Bengtsson T.,ABB | Blennow J.,Chalmers University of Technology | Gubanski S.M.,Chalmers University of Technology
IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement | Year: 2011

Dielectric-response measurements are commonly performed with frequency-domain spectroscopy, polarization/depolarization-current measurements, or return-voltage measurements. These techniques operate in a frequency or time domain, and all have high requirements on the voltage source in order to acquire accurate results. This limits dielectric-response measurements to offline applications. A new technique, which is called arbitrary-waveform- impedance spectroscopy, has been developed, which makes use of the harmonics of any voltage waveform to perform dielectric-response measurements. The technique provides possibilities for online measurements facilitating the monitoring of materials and components in high-voltage applications. Here, the different aspects of the measurement system are presented, including circuit modeling, normalization, and discussions on aliasing and noise; all of them are necessary to control in order to perform accurate measurements. © 2011 IEEE.


Lervik J.K.,Sintef | Iversen O.,Nexans Norway AS | Solheim K.T.,Sintef
Proceedings of the International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference | Year: 2016

Direct Electrical Heating (DEH) of offshore pipelines is an established cost-efficient and environmental friendly method for flow assurance in offshore oil production compared to traditional methods such as chemical injection. The first DEH system was installed in year 2000 in the North Sea, and is presently designed for around 5 years of usage during the lifetime of the field. In order to increase the attractiveness of the DEH technology an innovative step by higher power frequency and optimized pipe coating methods is utilized. The main drivers for this next generation DEH are continuous usage, applicable to ultra-deep waters and marginal fields as well as reduced costs and weight. © Copyright 2016 by the International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers (ISOPE).


Komperod M.,Nexans Norway AS | Konradsen B.,Nexans Norway AS | Slora R.,Nexans Norway AS
Proceedings of the International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering - OMAE | Year: 2015

Bitumen is used as anticorrosion material to protect armor wires in subsea cables and umbilicals. Establishing bitumen's viscoelastic properties is essential for developing analytical models of how bitumen influences the cable's mechanical properties, in particular the bending stiffness. A new laboratory instrument has been developed for establishing the viscoelastic properties of bitumen subject to equally large strains as in reallife cables. This paper presents the basic principle of the new instrument and derives how to calculate bitumen's viscoelastic properties from the measurements logged by the instrument. The paper also models bitumen's viscoelastic properties as function of strain amplitude, strain frequency, and bitumen temperature, using multi-variable data analysis. These models show that the viscoelastic properties are highly temperature dependent. Bitumen's shear stress / shear strain amplitude ratio grows with increasing rate as the temperature decreases. © 2015 by ASME.


Jarvid M.,Nexans Norway AS | Josefsson S.,Nexans Norway AS
34th Electrical Insulation Conference, EIC 2016 | Year: 2016

A method for measuring leakage current in LDPE insulated miniature cables containing volatile additives is presented. It is shown that with the presented method the volatiles are sufficiently contained in the test object even at temperatures up to 90 °C. This is achieved through non permeable encapsulation around the outer insulation screen (extruded semiconducting layer). Guard electrodes are adopted on either side of the measuring electrode to eliminate the effect of surface currents on the terminations. The method is useful for indirectly relating the content of individual peroxide decomposition products to the leakage current in XLPE based HVDC cables. Evaluation of the method was performed using acetophenone that was soaked into the test objects prior to encapsulation. After heat treatments at up to 90 °C the acetophenone content of the samples were investigated. This was done by consecutive HPLC and weight loss measurements. Data from two-hour conductivity measurements using this method are presented and a clear influence of acetophenone is observed at 30, 70 and 90 °C. © 2016 IEEE.


Karlsen S.,Nexans Norway AS
Proceedings of the International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering - OMAE | Year: 2010

Dynamic subsea power cables are used for distribution of electric power to subsea units for oil and gas production and for power distribution from offshore wind mills. As the cables are suspended from the sea level to sea floor, a dynamic analysis is normally required to ensure that the cables are able to withstand the dynamic tension and bending caused by waves and vessel movements. The fatigue property of a conductor is determined by the mechanical properties of the individual wires and stress concentration caused by wire interaction. Previous publications on steel wires and ropes have brought light on the effect of Rratio and wire interaction such as fretting and inter wire slippage. For copper conductors the complexity of fatigue is multiplied by the fact that the individual wires have a nonlinear stress-strain behavior well below the defined yield stress limit and poor creep properties below maximum cable operation temperatures. Moreover, the interaction between the wires is determined not only by the contact between copper surfaces but also by the water blocking compound in between the wires normally required for subsea cables. A test method, simulating the fatigue mechanism in a dynamic power cable, including the effect from friction, fretting, creep properties of copper and high tension at deep waters is presented together with test results for a representative conductor. Copyright © 2010 by ASME.


Floden R.,Nexans Norway AS | Bengtsson M.,Nexans Norway AS
Proceedings of the International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference | Year: 2015

Submarine XLPE (cross-linked polyethylene) insulated cables of wet design have been manufactured and delivered by Nexans for more than 40 years, including cables for Direct Electric Heating (DEH) of flowlines for the last 15 years. In a DEH system the cable is strapped ('piggybacked') to the flowline, and the operating temperature is high. DEH and XLPE cables are used at ever increasing water depths. The purpose of this paper is to summarize experiences from ageing of wet design cables at different water pressures and give recommendations regarding the use of wet design XLPE cables in the future. Copyright © 2015 by the International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers (ISOPE).


Komperod M.,Nexans Norway AS
Proceedings of the International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference | Year: 2016

Coating armor wires of subsea power cables, umbilicals, and power umbilicals in bitumen is a common industry practice due to bitumen's excellent and field-proven anti-corrosion properties. The temperaturedependent, viscoelastic behavior of bitumen influences the cables' and umbilicals' mechanical properties. This paper presents the derivation of an analytical model of the capacity of bitumen-coated armor wires. Capacity refers to the allowed combinations of axial cable tension and cable bending curvature for which the armor wires remain within their capacity criterion, which is a certain percentage of their yield limit. Examples demonstrate that the armor wires' capacity is sensitive to bitumen's temperature and to some extent to the frequency of the cable oscillations. The derived model is suitable for implementation in spreadsheets and in scripts. © Copyright 2016 by the International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers (ISOPE).


Komperod M.,Nexans Norway AS
Proceedings of the International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference | Year: 2016

Bitumen is field-proved to be a highly effective corrosion protection for steel armor wires in subsea power cables, umbilicals, and power umbilicals. Bitumen's viscoelastic properties are known to influence the mechanical properties of cables, umbilicals, and power umbilicals. Still, common industry practice is to neglect bitumen and instead assume dry friction, also at bitumen-coated contact surfaces. This paper presents novel simulations of an umbilical with bitumen-coated armor wires using the cable and umbilical simulation software UFLEX2D. To the author's knowledge such simulations have not been published in the scientific literature before. The UFLEX2D simulations show that the bending stiffness is highly sensitive to bitumen's temperature and to some extent sensitive to the umbilical oscillation frequency. The paper also compares bitumen with dry friction. The simulations reveal that bitumen introduces a phase shift between the umbilical's bending curvature and bending moment. This paper therefore introduces the complex bending stiffness which also includes this phase shift. © Copyright 2016 by the International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers (ISOPE).

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