Peng H.,NewYork Medical College |
Kang N.,NewYork Medical College |
Xu J.,Tongji University |
Stanton P.K.,NewYork Medical College |
Kang J.,NewYork Medical College
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2013
Formation of the fusion pore is a central question for regulated exocytosis by which secretory cells release neurotransmitters or hormones. Here, by dynamically monitoring exocytosis of large vesicles (2-7 μm) in astrocytes with two-photon microscopy imaging, we found that the exocytotic fusion pore was generated from the SNARE-dependent fusion at a ring shape of the docked plasma-vesicular membrane and the movement of a fusion-produced membrane fragment. We observed two modes of fragment movements, 1) a shift fragment that shifted to expand the fusion pore and 2) a fall-in fragment that fell into the collapsed vesicle to expand the fusion pore. Shift and fall-in modes are associated with full and partial collapses of large vesicles, respectively. The astrocytic marker, sulforhodamine 101, stained the fusion-produced membrane fragment more brightly than FM1-43. Sulforhodamine 101 imaging showed that double fusion pores could simultaneously occur in a single vesicle (16% of large vesicles) to accelerate discharge of vesicular contents. Electron microscopy of large astrocytic vesicles showed shift and fall-in membrane fragments. Two modes of fusion pore formation demonstrate a novel mechanism underlying fusion pore expansion and provide a new explanation for full and partial collapses of large secretory vesicles. © 2013 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Chachua T.,Yeshiva University |
Chachua T.,NewYork Medical College |
Yum M.-S.,Yeshiva University |
Yum M.-S.,Asan Medical Center |
And 6 more authors.
Epilepsia | Year: 2011
Purpose: To determine whether a new model of cryptogenic infantile spasms consisting of prenatal priming with betamethasone and postnatal trigger of spasms by N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) responds to chronic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) treatment, and has electroencephalography (EEG) signature, efficacy of treatments, and behavioral impairments similar to those in human infantile spasms. Methods: Rats prenatally primed with betamethasone on gestational day 15 were used. Spasms were triggered with NMDA between postnatal days (P) 10 and 15 in a single session or in multiple sessions in one subject. The expression of spasms was compared to prenatally saline-injected controls. Effects of relevant treatments (ACTH, vigabatrin, methylprednisolone, rapamycin) were determined in betamethasone-primed rats. In the rats after spasms, behavioral evaluation was performed in the open field and elevated plus maze on P20-22. Key Findings: NMDA at P10-15 (the rat "infant" period) triggers the spasms significantly earlier and in greater numbers in the prenatal betamethasone-exposed brain compared to controls. Similar to human condition, the spasms occur in clusters. Repeated trigger of spasms is associated with ictal EEG electrodecrements and interictal large-amplitude waves, a possible rat variant of hypsarrhythmia. Chronic ACTH treatment in a randomized experiment, and chronic pretreatment with methylprednisolone significantly suppress the number of spasms similar to the human condition. Pretreatment with vigabatrin, but not rapamycin, suppressed the spasms. Significant behavioral changes occurred following multiple bouts of spasms. Significance: The model of infantile spasms has remarkable similarities with the human condition in semiology, EEG, pharmacologic response, and long-term outcome. Therefore, the model can be used to search for novel and more effective treatments for infantile spasms. © 2011 International League Against Epilepsy.