Newport Laboratories

Newport, MN, United States

Newport Laboratories

Newport, MN, United States
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Miller M.W.,Wildlife Research Center | Hause B.M.,Newport Laboratories | Killion H.J.,Wildlife Disease Laboratory | Fox K.A.,Wildlife Research Center | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Wildlife Diseases | Year: 2013

We used 16S rRNA sequencing and leukotoxin gene (lktA) screening via PCR assay to clarify phylogenetic and epidemiologic relationships among Pasteurellaceae isolated from bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis). Only six of 21 bighorn isolates identified as "Mannheimia haemolytica" in original laboratory reports appeared to be isolates of M. haemolytica sensu stricto based on 16S rRNA sequence comparisons; the remainder grouped with M. glucosida (n58) or M. ruminalis (n57). Similarly, 16S rRNA sequence comparisons grouped only 16 of 25 trehalose-fermenting bighorn isolates with reference strains of Bibersteinia trehalosi; nine other trehalose-fermenting bighorn isolates formed a clade divergent from B. trehalosi reference strains and may belong to another species. Of the 16 bighorn isolates identified as B. trehalosi by 16S rRNA sequences, only nine carried detectable lktA and thus seemed likely pathogens; none of the Bibersteinia clade isolates yielded detectable lktA despite reportedly showing b hemolysis in culture. Our findings suggest that traditional metabolismbased methods for identifying Pasteurellaceae isolates lack sufficient accuracy and resolution for reliably discerning bacterial causes of respiratory disease in bighorn sheep. Consequently, these traditional methods should minimally be augmented by molecular techniques to improve epidemiologic relevance. Streamlined surveillance approaches focused primarily on detecting pathogenic Pasteurellaceae (e.g., M. haemolytica sensu stricto and lktA-positive B. trehalosi) and other select pathogens may be most informative for investigating and managing bighorn respiratory disease. © Wildlife Disease Association 2013.

Hause B.M.,Newport Laboratories | Hause B.M.,South Dakota State University | Ducatez M.,St Jude Childrens Research Hospital | Collin E.A.,Newport Laboratories | And 10 more authors.
PLoS Pathogens | Year: 2013

Of the Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses, only influenza A viruses are thought to exist as multiple subtypes and has non-human maintenance hosts. In April 2011, nasal swabs were collected for virus isolation from pigs exhibiting influenza-like illness. Subsequent electron microscopic, biochemical, and genetic studies identified an orthomyxovirus with seven RNA segments exhibiting approximately 50% overall amino acid identity to human influenza C virus. Based on its genetic organizational similarities to influenza C viruses this virus has been provisionally designated C/Oklahoma/1334/2011 (C/OK). Phylogenetic analysis of the predicted viral proteins found that the divergence between C/OK and human influenza C viruses was similar to that observed between influenza A and B viruses. No cross reactivity was observed between C/OK and human influenza C viruses using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays. Additionally, screening of pig and human serum samples found that 9.5% and 1.3%, respectively, of individuals had measurable HI antibody titers to C/OK virus. C/OK virus was able to infect both ferrets and pigs and transmit to naive animals by direct contact. Cell culture studies showed that C/OK virus displayed a broader cellular tropism than a human influenza C virus. The observed difference in cellular tropism was further supported by structural analysis showing that hemagglutinin esterase (HE) proteins between two viruses have conserved enzymatic but divergent receptor-binding sites. These results suggest that C/OK virus represents a new subtype of influenza C viruses that currently circulates in pigs that has not been recognized previously. The presence of multiple subtypes of co-circulating influenza C viruses raises the possibility of reassortment and antigenic shift as mechanisms of influenza C virus evolution. © 2013 Hause et al.

Ducatez M.F.,St Jude Childrens Research Hospital | Hause B.,Newport Laboratories | Stigger-Rosser E.,St Jude Childrens Research Hospital | Darnell D.,St Jude Childrens Research Hospital | And 11 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

As a result of human-to-pig transmission, pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus was detected in pigs soon after it emerged in humans. In the United States, this transmission was quickly followed by multiple reassortment between the pandemic virus and endemic swine viruses. Nine reassortant viruses representing 7 genotypes were detected in commercial pig farms in the United States. Field observations suggested that the newly described reassortant viruses did not differ substantially from pandemic (H1N1) 2009 or endemic strains in their ability to cause disease. Comparable growth properties of reassortant and endemic viruses in vitro supported these observations; similarly, a representative reassortant virus replicated in ferrets to the same extent as did pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and endemic swine virus. These novel reassortant viruses highlight the increasing complexity of influenza viruses within pig populations and the frequency at which viral diversifi cation occurs in this ecologically important viral reservoir.

Bosworth B.,Iowa State University | Erdman M.M.,Iowa State University | Stine D.L.,Newport Laboratories | Harris I.,Iowa State University | And 7 more authors.
Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

An alphavirus derived replicon particle (RP) vaccine expressing the cluster IV H3N2 swine influenza virus (SIV) hemagglutinin (HA) gene induced protective immunity against homologous influenza virus challenge. However, pigs with maternal antibody had no protective immunity against challenge after vaccination with RP vaccines expressing HA gene alone or in combination with nucleoprotein gene. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Anbalagan S.,Newport Laboratories | Hause B.M.,Kansas State University
Archives of Virology | Year: 2014

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) was isolated from a pregnant cow in Indiana, USA, exhibiting excessive salivation, pyrexia and abortion. VP2, VP5, and VP7 sequences of the isolated bovine EHDV showed 97.7, 97.4, and 97.9 % identity to a serotype 2 reference virus. Bovine EHDV was closely related (>99.9 %) to white tailed deer (WTD) EHDV collected from Iowa in 2013 and showed less than 2.1 % divergence from EHDV collected from WTD across the USA in 2013. The high degree of sequence identity between bovine and WTD EHDV isolates demonstrates that similar viruses concurrently circulate in both species and suggests possible further incursions into bovines. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Wien.

PubMed | Kansas State University, Newport Laboratories and St Jude Childrens Research Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of virology | Year: 2015

A balance between the functions of the influenza virus surface proteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) is thought to be important for the transmission of viruses between humans. Here we describe two pandemic H1N1 viruses, A/swine/Virginia/1814-1/2012 and A/swine/Virginia/1814-2/2012 (pH1N1low-1 and -2, respectively), that were isolated from swine symptomatic for influenza. The enzymatic activity of the NA of these viruses was almost undetectable, while the HA binding affinity for 2,6 sialic acids was greater than that of the highly homologous pH1N1 viruses A/swine/Pennsylvania/2436/2012 and A/swine/Minnesota/2499/2012 (pH1N1-1 and -2), which exhibited better-balanced HA and NA activities. The in vitro growth kinetics of pH1N1low and pH1N1 viruses were similar, but aerosol transmission of pH1N1low-1 was abrogated and transmission via direct contact in ferrets was significantly impaired compared to pH1N1-1, which transmitted by direct and aerosol contact. In normal human bronchial epithelial cells, pH1N1low-1 was significantly inhibited by mucus but pH1N1-1 was not. In Madin-Darby canine kidney cell cultures overlaid with human or swine mucus, human mucus inhibited pH1N1low-1 but swine mucus did not. These data show that the interaction between viruses and mucus may be an important factor in viral transmissibility and could be a barrier for interspecies transmission between humans and swine for influenza viruses.A balance between the functions of the influenza virus surface proteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) is thought to be important for transmission of viruses from swine to humans. Here we show that a swine virus with extremely functionally mismatched HA and NAs (pH1N1low-1) cannot transmit via aerosol in ferrets, while another highly homologous virus with HA and NAs that are better matched functionally (pH1N1-1) can transmit via aerosol. These viruses show similar growth kinetics in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, but pH1N1low-1 is significantly inhibited by mucus in normal human bronchial epithelial cells whereas pH1N1-1 is not. Further, human mucus could inhibit these viruses, but swine mucus could not. These data show that the interaction between viruses and mucus may be an important factor in viral transmissibility and could be a species barrier between humans and swine for influenza viruses.

Hause B.M.,Newport Laboratories | Hause B.M.,South Dakota State University | Stine D.L.,Newport Laboratories | Sheng Z.,South Dakota State University | And 4 more authors.
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology | Year: 2012

Routine antigenic characterization of swine influenza virus isolates in a high-throughput serum neutralization (HTSN) assay found that approximately 20% of isolates were not neutralized by a panel of reference antisera. Genetic analysis revealed that nearly all of the neutralization-resistant isolates possessed a seasonal human-lineage hemagglutinin (HA; δcluster). Subsequent sequencing analysis of full-length HA identified a conserved N144 residue present only in neutralization-resistant strains. N144 lies in a predicted N-linked glycosylation consensus sequence, i.e., N-X-S/T (where X is any amino acid except for proline). Interestingly, neutralization-sensitive viruses all had predicted N-linked glycosylation sites at N137 or N142, with threonine (T) occupying position 144 of HA. Consistent with the HTSN assay, hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and serum neutralization (SN) assays demonstrated that migration of the potential N-linked glycosylation site from N137 or N142 to N144 resulted in a >8-fold decrease in titers. These results were further confirmed in a reverse genetics system where syngeneic viruses varying only by predicted N-glycosylation sites at either N142 or N144 exhibited distinct antigenic characteristics like those observed in field isolates. Molecular modeling of the hemagglutinin protein containing N142 or N144 in complex with a neutralizing antibody suggested that N144-induced potential glycosylation may sterically hinder access of antibodies to the hemagglutinin head domain, allowing viruses to escape neutralization. Since N-linked glycosylation at these sites has been implicated in genetic and antigenic evolution of human influenza A viruses, we conclude that the relocation of the hemagglutinin N-linked glycosylation site from N142 to N144 renders swine influenza virus δ-cluster viruses resistant to antibody-mediated neutralization. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Newport Laboratories | Date: 2012-01-27

A novel influenza C virus with only low homology to any influenza C virus previously characterized. Challenge studies show that the virus can infect pigs and be transmitted between pigs. Additionally, influenza C is commonly thought of as a human pathogen and serological studies have been performed, looking at the incidence of antibodies against this virus in both pigs and humans. Approximately 10% of pigs and 30% of humans have antibodies to this virus. Additional experimental data show that the virus can infect and transmit in ferrets (a surrogate for human infection studies). In a third aspect, the present invention is the partial genome of this novel influenza C virus. In another aspect, the present invention is a method of detection in animals of this novel influenza C virus.

PubMed | Newport Laboratories
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of general virology | Year: 2014

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) is a Culicoides transmitted orbivirus that causes haemorrhagic disease in wild and domestic ruminants. A collection of 44 EHDV isolated from 2008 to 2012 was fully sequenced and analysed phylogenetically. Serotype 2 viruses were the dominant serotype all years except 2012 when serotype 6 viruses represented 63 % of the isolates. High genetic similarity (>94 % identity) between serotype 1 and 2 virus VP1, VP3, VP4, VP6, NS1, NS2 and NS3 segments prevented identification of reassortment events for these segments. Additionally, there was little genetic diversity (>96 % identity) within serotypes for VP2, VP5 and VP7. Preferential reassortment within the homologous serotype was observed for VP2, VP5 and VP7 segments for type 1 and type 2 viruses. In contrast, type 6 viruses were all reassortants containing VP2 and VP5 derived from an exotic type 6 with the remaining segments most similar to type 2 viruses. These results suggest that reassortment between type 1 and type 2 viruses requires conservation of the VP2, VP5 and VP7 segment constellation while type 6 viruses only require VP2 and VP5 and are restricted to type 2-lineage VP7. As type 6 VP2 and VP5 segments were exclusively identified in viruses with type 2-derived VP7, these results suggest functional complementation between type 2 and type 6 VP7 proteins.

PubMed | Newport Laboratories
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of general virology | Year: 2013

The genus Orbivirus includes a diverse group of segmented dsRNA viruses that are transmitted via arthropods, have a global distribution and affect a wide range of hosts. A novel orbivirus was co-isolated with epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) from a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) exhibiting clinical signs characteristic of EHDV. Using antiserum generated against EHDV, a pure isolate of the novel non-cytopathic orbivirus was obtained in Aedes albopictus cell culture. Genomic sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of predicted ORFs showed that eight of the ten ORFs were most homologous to Peruvian horse sickness virus (PHSV), with amino acid identities of 44.3-73.7%. The remaining two ORFs, VP3 and VP5, were most similar to Middle Point orbivirus (35.9%) and Yunnan orbivirus (59.8%), respectively. Taxonomic classification of orbiviruses is largely based on homology of the major subcore structural protein VP2(T2), encoded by segment 2 for mobuck virus. With only 69.1% amino acid identity to PHSV, we propose mobuck virus as the prototype of a new species of Orbivirus.

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