Newport Coastal Field Office

Newport, OR, United States

Newport Coastal Field Office

Newport, OR, United States
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Priest G.R.,Newport Coastal Field Office | Witter R.C.,U.S. Geological Survey | Zhang Y.J.,Virginia Institute of Marine Science | Goldfinger C.,Oregon State University | And 2 more authors.
Natural Hazards | Year: 2017

Forecasting earthquake and tsunami hazards along the southern Cascadia subduction zone is complicated by uncertainties in the amount of megathrust fault slip during past ruptures. Here, we estimate slip on hypothetical ruptures of the southern part of the megathrust through comparisons of late Holocene Cascadia earthquake histories derived from tsunami deposits on land and marine turbidites offshore. Bradley Lake in southern Oregon lies ~600 m landward of the shoreline and contains deposits from 12 tsunamis in the past 4600 years. Tsunami simulations that overtop the 6-m-high lake outlet, generated by ruptures with most slip south of Cape Blanco, require release of at least as much strain on the megathrust as would accumulate in 430–640 years (>15–22 m). Such high slip is inconsistent with global seismic data for a rupture ~300-km long and slip deficits over the past ~4700 years on the southern Cascadia subduction zone. Assuming slip deficits accumulated during the time intervals between marine turbidites, up to 8 of 12 tsunami inundations at the lake are predicted from a marine core site 170 km north of the lake (at Hydrate Ridge) compared to 4 of 12 when using a core site ~80 km south (at Rogue Apron). Longer time intervals between turbidites at Hydrate Ridge imply larger slip deficits compared to Rogue Apron. The different inundations predicted by the two records suggest that Hydrate Ridge records subduction ruptures that extend past both Rogue Apron and Bradley Lake. We also show how turbidite-based estimates of CSZ rupture length relate to tsunami source scenarios for probabilistic tsunami hazard assessments consistent with lake inundations over the last ~4600 years. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht (outside the USA)


Priest G.R.,Newport Coastal Field Office | Goldfinger C.,Oregon State University | Wang K.,Geological Survey of Canada | Witter R.C.,Newport Coastal Field Office | And 2 more authors.
Natural Hazards | Year: 2010

To explore the local tsunami hazard from the Cascadia subduction zone we (1) evaluate geologically reasonable variability of the earthquake rupture process, (2) specify 25 deterministic earthquake sources, and (3) use resulting vertical coseismic deformations for simulation of tsunami inundation at Cannon Beach, Oregon. Maximum runup was 9-30 m (NAVD88) from earthquakes with slip of ~8-38 m and Mw ~8.3-9.4. Minimum subduction zone slip consistent with three tsunami deposits was 14-15 m. By assigning variable weights to the source scenarios using a logic tree, we derived percentile inundation lines that express the confidence level (percentage) that a Cascadia tsunami will not exceed the line. Ninety-nine percent of Cascadia tsunami variation is covered by runup ≤30 m and 90% ≤16 m with a "preferred" (highest weight) value of ~10 m. A hypothetical maximum-considered distant tsunami had runup of ~11 m, while the historical maximum was ~6.5 m. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Priest G.R.,Newport Coastal Field Office | Zhang Y.,Virginia Institute of Marine Science | Witter R.C.,U.S. Geological Survey | Wang K.,Geological Survey of Canada | And 2 more authors.
Natural Hazards | Year: 2014

This paper explores the size and arrival of tsunamis in Oregon and Washington from the most likely partial ruptures of the Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) in order to determine (1) how quickly tsunami height declines away from sources, (2) evacuation time before significant inundation, and (3) extent of felt shaking that would trigger evacuation. According to interpretations of offshore turbidite deposits, the most frequent partial ruptures are of the southern CSZ. Combined recurrence of ruptures extending ~490 km from Cape Mendocino, California, to Waldport, Oregon (segment C) and ~320 km from Cape Mendocino to Cape Blanco, Oregon (segment D), is ~530 years. This recurrence is similar to frequency of full-margin ruptures on the CSZ inferred from paleoseismic data and to frequency of the largest distant tsunami sources threatening Washington and Oregon, ~M w 9.2 earthquakes from the Gulf of Alaska. Simulated segment C and D ruptures produce relatively low-amplitude tsunamis north of source areas, even for extreme (20 m) peak slip on segment C. More than ~70 km north of segments C and D, the first tsunami arrival at the 10-m water depth has an amplitude of <1.9 m. The largest waves are trapped edge waves with amplitude ≤4.2 m that arrive ≥2 h after the earthquake. MM V-VI shaking could trigger evacuation of educated populaces as far north as Newport, Oregon for segment D events and Grays Harbor, Washington for segment C events. The NOAA and local warning systems will be the only warning at greater distances from sources. © 2014 US Government.

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