De Geronimo G.,Brookhaven National Laboratory |
Rehak P.,Brookhaven National Laboratory |
Ackley K.,Brookhaven National Laboratory |
Carini G.,Brookhaven National Laboratory |
And 11 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science | Year: 2010
We present an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for high-resolution x-ray spectrometers (XRS). The ASIC reads out signals from pixelated silicon drift detectors (SDDs). The pixel does not have an integrated field effect transistor (FET); rather, readout is accomplished by wire-bonding the anodes to the inputs of the ASIC. The ASIC dissipates 32 mW, and offers 16 channels of low-noise charge amplification, high-order shaping with baseline stabilization, discrimination, a novel pile-up rejector, and peak detection with an analog memory. The readout is sparse and based on custom low-power tristatable low-voltage differential signaling (LPT-LVDS). A unit of 64 SDD pixels, read out by four ASICs, covers an area of 12.8 cm2 and dissipates with the sensor biased about 15 mW/cm2 . As a tile-based system, the 64-pixel units cover a large detection area. Our preliminary measurements at -44°C show a FWHM of 145 eV at the 5.9 keV peak of a 55Fe source, and less than 80 eV on a test-pulse line at 200 eV. © 2010 IEEE.
Li M.,Pennsylvania State University |
Simeone O.,NewJersey Institute of Technology |
Yener A.,Pennsylvania State University
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory | Year: 2013
A state-dependent degraded broadcast diamond channel is studied where the source-to-relays cut is modeled with two noiseless, finite-capacity digital links with a degraded broadcasting structure, while the relays-to-destination cut is a general multiple access channel controlled by a random state. It is assumed that the source has noncausal channel state information and the relays have no state information. Under this model, first, the capacity is characterized for the case where the destination has state information, i.e., has access to the state sequence. It is demonstrated that in this case, a joint message and state transmission scheme via binning is optimal. Next, the case where the destination does not have state information, i.e., the case with state information at the source only, is considered. For this scenario, lower and upper bounds on the capacity are derived for the general discrete memoryless model. Achievable rates are then computed for the case in which the relays-to-destination cut is affected by an additive Gaussian state. Numerical results are provided that illuminate the performance advantages that can be accrued by leveraging noncausal state information at the source. © 1963-2012 IEEE.
Kuo S.-Y.,NewJersey Institute of Technology |
Jackson N.L.,NewJersey Institute of Technology
Journal of Environmental Education | Year: 2014
Studies suggest that at engineering universities, where the percentage of males and engineering majors is high, pro-environmental attitudes are likely to be weak and may not change. The 15-item New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) scale was used to measure differences in student attitudes before and after an environmental studies course. Results revealed students held more pro-environmental attitudes about the validity of the ecological crisis, the existence of resource constraints, and the delicacy of nature's balance after the course. Students did not shift their views regarding the domination of humans over the environment or their belief in human ingenuity to overcome resource limits. Engineering majors showed weaker endorsement of the NEP compared to non-engineering majors, but the increase in their endorsement after the course was statistically significant. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.