O'Leary A.M.,National University of Ireland |
Whyte P.,University College Dublin |
Madden R.H.,Newforge Lane |
Cormican M.,National University of Ireland |
And 9 more authors.
Food Microbiology | Year: 2011
Campylobacter enteritis is a zoonosis, an infectious disease transmissible under normal conditions from vertebrate animals to man, presenting a major global public health burden. In this study, Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) was employed to identify common genotypes in a collection of 600 . Campylobacter isolates in order to investigate if profiles obtained from retail samples of foodstuffs matched genotypes causing illness in the community in Ireland. The Campylobacters were isolated from retail foodstuffs, and cases of gastroenteritis, over the same 20-month period in three population centres in Ireland. The major observation made was of a high level of PFGE-genotype heterogeneity; 236 . SmaI discrete genotypes were found in 507 strains successfully analysed. Analysis of the PFGE profiles revealed 22 common profiles amongst food isolates and those causing enteritis in humans. These cojoint PFGE genotypes indicate that 56 (38%) of the human clinical isolates are genetically related to 129 (36%) of the food isolates. The identification of these recurrent PFGE types, in the sampled . Campylobacter coli and . Campylobacter jejuni populations, indicates that a high proportion of . Campylobacter isolates found in foods of animal origin also occur in patients with symptoms of enteritis. This data adds weight to the epidemiological hypothesis that a high proportion of human . Campylobacter cases are contracted . via the handling and consumption of contaminated foodstuffs, in particular poultry. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Keady T.W.J.,Agricultural Research Institute of Northern Ireland |
Keady T.W.J.,Queen's University of Belfast |
Keady T.W.J.,Teagasc |
Gordon A.W.,Newforge Lane |
And 3 more authors.
Animal | Year: 2013
The effects of maturity of maize at harvest, level of inclusion and potential interactions on the performance, carcass composition, meat quality and potential concentrate-sparing effect when offered to finishing beef cattle were studied. Two maize silages were ensiled that had dry matter (DM) concentrations of 217 and 304 g/kg and starch concentrations of 55 and 258 g/kg DM, respectively. Grass silage was offered as the sole forage supplemented with either 4 or 8 kg concentrate/steer daily or in addition with one of the two maize silages at a ratio 0.5 : 0.5, on a DM basis, maize silage : grass silage supplemented with 4 kg concentrate daily. The two maize silages were also offered as the sole forage supplemented with 4 kg concentrate/steer daily. The forages were offered ad libitum. The six diets were offered to 72 steers (initial live weight 522 s.d. 23.5 kg) for 146 days. There were significant interactions (P < 0.05) between maize maturity and inclusion level for food intake, fibre digestibility and daily gain. For the grass silage supplemented with 4 or 8 kg concentrate, and the maize silages with DM concentrations of 217 and 304 g/kg offered as 0.5 or 1.0 of the forage component of the diet, total DM intakes were 8.3, 9.8, 8.9, 8.2, 9.2 and 9.8 kg DM/day (s.e. 0.27); live-weight gains were 0.74, 1.17, 0.86, 0.71, 0.88 and 1.03 kg/day (s.e. 0.057); and carcass gains were 0.48, 0.73, 0.56, 0.46, 0.56 and 0.63 kg/day (s.e. 0.037), respectively. Increasing the level of concentrate (offered with grass silage), maize maturity and level of maize inclusion reduced (P < 0.05) fat b* (yellowness). The potential daily concentrate-sparing effect, as determined by carcass gain, for the maize silages with DM concentrations of 217 and 304 g/kg offered as 0.5 and 1.0 of the forage component of the diet were 1.3, -0.3, 1.3 and 2.4 kg fresh weight, respectively. It is concluded that the response, in animal performance, including maize silage is dependent on the stage of maturity and level of inclusion in the diet. Maize silage with a DM of 304 g/kg offered ad libitum increased carcass gain by 31%, because of a combination of increased metabolizable energy (ME) intake and improved efficiency of utilization of ME, and produced carcasses with whiter fat. Copyright © The Animal Consortium 2012.
O'Rourke S.M.,University College Dublin |
Foy R.H.,Newforge Lane |
Foy R.H.,Agri Food and Biosciences Institute of Northern Ireland |
Watson C.J.,Newforge Lane |
And 5 more authors.
Soil Use and Management | Year: 2012
Losses of phosphorus (P) to water that follow manure applications can be high while water treatment residuals (WTR) have an appreciable capacity to sorb soluble P which is an important risk factor in determining the susceptibility of manure P to run-off losses. The objective of this study was to assess whether co-blending WTR with dairy cow manure prior to surface application would reduce P concentrations in run-off from grassland. An alum-derived WTR was collected from a water treatment works (WTW), dried and characterized for its phosphorus sorption capacity (PSC) based on oxalate-extractable Al and Fe. Multipoint P sorption isotherms were used to calculate the Langmuir P sorption maximum (P max) and equilibrium P concentration (EPC 0). The WTR contained 170gAl ox/kg and 2.2gFe ox/kg with a nominal long-term PSC of 118g/kg. Following a 6day incubation of WTR, the Langmuir P max was 82.6g/kg and the EPC 0 of 0.13mgP/L. Laboratory incubations of manure co-blended with WTR indicated that 144gWTR/kg dry matter (DM) manure significantly lowered (P<0.001) manure WSP by 71.5±16.6% after 108h, but lower WTR mixing rates of 72 and 36gWTR/kg had no statistical effect on manure WSP. Results from a field experiment using simulated rain on 0.5-m 2 grassland plots showed no significant effect on run-off P 2days after applying 50m 3/ha of 6% DM manure co-blended WTR at rates of 150 and 250gWTR/kg. © 2012 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2012 British Society of Soil Science.
Annett R.W.,Agri Food and Biosciences Institute of Northern Ireland |
Carson A.F.,Agri Food and Biosciences Institute of Northern Ireland |
Dawson L.E.R.,Agri Food and Biosciences Institute of Northern Ireland |
Kilpatrick D.J.,Newforge Lane
Animal | Year: 2011
The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of dietary lipid source on the growth and carcass characteristics of lambs sourced from a range of crossbred hill ewes. Over a 2-year period, 466 lambs representing the progeny of Scottish Blackface (BF × BF), Swaledale (SW) × BF, North Country Cheviot (CH) × BF, Lleyn (LL) × BF and Texel (T) × BF ewes were sourced from six commercial hill flocks and finished on one of four diets: grass pellets (GP), cereal-based concentrate (CC), CC enriched with oilseed rape (CR) and CC enriched with fish oil (CF). Dry matter intake (DMI) was highest (P < 0.001) in lambs offered GP; however, carcass weight gain (CWG) and feed conversion efficiency were higher (P < 0.001) in lambs fed concentrate-based diets. For lambs offered concentrate-based diets, DMI and live weight gain were lower (P < 0.001) for CF than CC or CR. Lambs with T × BF dams achieved a higher (P < 0.05) daily CWG and CWG/kg DMI than BF × BF, SW × BF or LL × BF dams. When lambs were slaughtered at fat score 3, CH × BF, LL × BF and T × BF dams increased carcass weight by 0.8 to 1.4 kg (P < 0.001) and conformation score (CS) by 0.2 to 0.4 units (P < 0.001) compared with BF × BF or SW × BF dams. However, breed effects on carcass conformation were reduced by 50% when lambs were slaughtered at a constant carcass weight. Diets CC and CR increased carcass weight by 0.8 to 1.6 kg (P < 0.001) and CS by 0.1 to 0.3 units (P < 0.001) compared with GP and CF. Both, dam breed and dietary effects on carcass conformation were associated with an increase (P < 0.001) in shoulder width of the lambs. Lambs fed CF and slaughtered at a constant carcass weight had more subcutaneous fat over the Longissumus dorsi (P < 0.05), Iliocostalis thoracis (P < 0.001) and Obliquus internus abdominis (P < 0.001) compared with those fed CC. However, these effects were removed when lambs were slaughtered at a constant fat score. At both endpoints, lambs from T × BF dams contained less (P < 0.05) perinephric and retroperitoneal fat than SW × BF or LL × BF dams fed GP or CC, respectively. The results from this study show that using crossbred ewes sired by CH, LL or T sires will increase carcass weight and improve carcass conformation of lambs sourced from hill flocks. Inclusion of oilseed rape in lamb finishing diets had only minor effects on performance compared with a standard CC but feeding fish oil or GP impacted negatively on lamb growth and carcass quality. © 2011 The Animal Consortium.