NewFields Northwest

Port Angeles, WA, United States

NewFields Northwest

Port Angeles, WA, United States
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McFarlin K.M.,University of Alaska Fairbanks | Perkins R.A.,University of Alaska Fairbanks | Gardiner W.W.,NewFields Northwest | Word J.D.,NewFields Northwest
Proceedings of the 33rd AMOP Technical Seminar on Environmental Contamination and Response | Year: 2010

In the event of a marine oil spill, managers must decide on response actions such as natural recovery, mechanical recovery, in situ burning, and/or chemical dispersion. A Net Environmental Benefit Analysis (NEBA) is a structured examination of various spill response actions and their net environmental effects on key resources and habitats. Estimating effects of various oil response actions on marine life and developing input parameters for NEBA models and alternative assessments during spill events is vital to this examination. This requires information about the sensitivity of relevant species under conditions following various spill response techniques. For a hypothetical spill scenario in the Beaufort and Chukchi Sea, key input parameters for a NEBA model include the relative toxicity of oil and dispersed oil to local species, change in toxicity with weathering and dispersion of petroleum, as well as the rate of petroleum biodegradation. A Joint Industry Program was established to collect these parameters and this paper discusses the first phase of completed research. Phase 1 activities included determining relevant species to the Beaufort and Chukchi Sea ecosystems, creating and setting up a toxicity and biodegradation laboratory with a cold room in Barrow, Alaska, developing collection and culture methods for test organisms, and developing toxicity and biodegradation test protocols. This project is ongoing and will provide toxicity and biodegradation information for use in NEBA types of assessments.


McFarlin K.M.,University of Alaska Fairbanks | Perkins R.A.,University of Alaska Fairbanks | Leigh M.B.,University of Alaska Fairbanks | Word J.Q.,NewFields Northwest
Proceedings of the 35th AMOP Technical Seminar on Environmental Contamination and Response | Year: 2012

As oil exploration expands in offshore Arctic regions, it becomes important to assess how inputs of petroleum affect the indigenous community of microorganisms. Biodegradation of oil is considered one of the dominant processes contributing to the removal of petroleum compounds from the environment (NRC, 2003). The rate of marine oil biodegradation depends upon many factors such as the type of oil, the available mixing energy, temperature, nutrients, and the bioavailability of petroleum compounds to degradative microorganisms. A mesocosm experiment was conducted in order to determine how quickly indigenous arctic marine microorganisms respond to chemically dispersed and non-chemically dispersed crude oil and to identity what species increase in abundance in response to oil and chemical dispersants. Three mesocosm treatments each containing 16 L of fresh seawater collected in February. 2011 offshore from Barrow. AK were incubated for 60 days. The mesocosms treatments consisted of 2.5 mg/L fresh ANS crude oil 2 .5 mg/L of chemically dispersed fresh ANS crude oil with Corexit 9500 (1:15 DOR) and a control with unamended seawater. Nutrients were not added to any treatment. Water was sampled from a port at the bottom of each mesocosm at 10 days, 4 weeks and 9 weeks. One liter mesocosm samples were filtered and total DNA was extracted from each filter. Microbial communities were identified using pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes and compared among treatments and at each sampling time point. Results are pending.


McFarlin K.M.,University of Alaska Fairbanks | Perkins R.A.,University of Alaska Fairbanks | Gardiner W.W.,NewFields Northwest | Word J.D.,NewFields Northwest
Proceedings of the 34th AMOP Technical Seminar on Environmental Contamination and Response | Year: 2011

In the event of a marine oil spill, managers must decide on response actions such as natural attenuation, mechanical recovery, in situ burning, and/or chemical dispersion. Responders making those decisions need to know the relative toxicity of physically and chemically dispersed fresh oil and the rates of biodegradation for fresh and weathered oil. A Joint Industry Program was established in 2008 to collect these parameters and this paper discusses the second phase of completed research. Phase 1 activities included determining species relevant to the Beaufort and Chukchi Sea ecosystems, creating and setting up a toxicity and biodegradation laboratory with a cold room in Barrow, Alaska, developing collection and culture methods for test organisms, and developing toxicity and biodegradation test protocols. Phase 2 of the project included the toxicity testing of the local environmentally significant species, the copepod (C. glacialis), arctic cod (B. saida), and larval sculpin (Myoxocephalus sp.). WAF and CE-WAF were made with fresh ANS following CROSERF protocols, modified to represent site-specific conditions of Arctic open waters. Additional toxicity tests were performed on the dispersant, Corexit 9500. Biodegradation of chemically and physically dispersed fresh and weathered ANS petroleum was measured by CO 2 production in a respirometer and by GC/MS analysis.


Gardiner W.W.,NewFields Northwest | Word J.Q.,NewFields Northwest | Word J.D.,NewFields Northwest | Perkins R.A.,University of Alaska Fairbanks | And 4 more authors.
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry | Year: 2013

The acute toxicity of physically and chemically dispersed crude oil and the dispersant Corexit 9500 were evaluated for key Arctic species. The copepod Calanus glacialis, juvenile Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida), and larval sculpin (Myoxocephalus sp.) were tested under conditions representative of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas during the ice-free season. The toxicity of 3 water-accommodated fractions (WAF) of Alaska North Slope crude oil was examined with spiked, declining exposures. A dispersant-only test was conducted with the copepod C. glacialis. Each preparation with oil (WAF, breaking wave WAF [BWWAF], and chemically enhanced WAF [CEWAF]) produced distinct suites of hydrocarbon constituents; the total concentrations of oil were lowest in WAF and highest in CEWAF preparations. The relative sensitivity for the different species and age classes was similar within each WAF type. Median lethal concentration values based on total petroleum hydrocarbons ranged from 1.6mg/L to 4.0mg/L for WAF and BWWAF treatments and from 22mg/L to 62mg/L for CEWAF. For Corexit 9500 exposures, median lethal concentration values ranged from 17mg/L to 50mg/L. The differences in the relative toxicity among the accommodated fractions indicated that the majority of petroleum hydrocarbons in the CEWAF are in less acutely toxic forms than the components that dominate the WAF or BWWAF. Further evaluation showed that the parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, specifically naphthalene, were highly correlated to acute toxicity. © The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Peridoicals, Inc., on behalf of SETAC.


PubMed | NewFields Northwest
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental toxicology and chemistry | Year: 2013

The acute toxicity of physically and chemically dispersed crude oil and the dispersant Corexit 9500 were evaluated for key Arctic species. The copepod Calanus glacialis, juvenile Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida), and larval sculpin (Myoxocephalus sp.) were tested under conditions representative of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas during the ice-free season. The toxicity of 3 water-accommodated fractions (WAF) of Alaska North Slope crude oil was examined with spiked, declining exposures. A dispersant-only test was conducted with the copepod C. glacialis. Each preparation with oil (WAF, breaking wave WAF [BWWAF], and chemically enhanced WAF [CEWAF]) produced distinct suites of hydrocarbon constituents; the total concentrations of oil were lowest in WAF and highest in CEWAF preparations. The relative sensitivity for the different species and age classes was similar within each WAF type. Median lethal concentration values based on total petroleum hydrocarbons ranged from 1.6 mg/L to 4.0 mg/L for WAF and BWWAF treatments and from 22 mg/L to 62 mg/L for CEWAF. For Corexit 9500 exposures, median lethal concentration values ranged from 17 mg/L to 50 mg/L. The differences in the relative toxicity among the accommodated fractions indicated that the majority of petroleum hydrocarbons in the CEWAF are in less acutely toxic forms than the components that dominate the WAF or BWWAF. Further evaluation showed that the parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, specifically naphthalene, were highly correlated to acute toxicity.

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