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Slatter M.A.,Newcastle Upon Tyne Hospital National Health Servcie Foundation Trust | Rao K.,Great Ormond Street Hospital National Health Service Trust | Amrolia P.,Great Ormond Street Hospital National Health Service Trust | Flood T.,Newcastle Upon Tyne Hospital National Health Servcie Foundation Trust | And 10 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2011

Children with primary immunodeficiency diseases, particularly those less than 1 year of age, experience significant toxicity after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, with busulfan- or melphalan-based conditioning. Treosulfan causes less venoocclusive disease than busulfan and does not require pharmacokinetic monitoring. We report its use in 70 children. Children received 42 g/m2 or 36 g/m2 with cyclophosphamide 200 mg/kg (n = 30) or fludarabine 150 mg/m2 (n = 40), with alemtuzumab in most. Median age at transplantation was 8.5 months (range, 1.2-175 months); 46 (66%) patients were 12 months of age or younger. Donors were as follows: matched sibling donor, 8; matched family donor, 13; haploidentical, 4; and unrelated, 45. Median follow-up was 19 months (range, 1-47 months). Overall survival was 81%, equivalent in those age less or greater than 1 year. Skin toxicity was common. Veno-occlusive disease occurred twice with cyclophosphamide. Eighteen patients (26%) had graft-versus-host disease, and only 7 (10%) greater than grade 2. Two patients rejected; 24 of 42 more than 1 year after transplantation had100%donor chimerism. Theremainderhadstable mixed chimerism. T-cell chimerism was significantly better with fludarabine. Long-term follow-up is required, but in combination with fludarabine, treosulfan is a good choice of conditioning for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in primary immunodeficiency disease. © 2011 by The American Society of Hematology. Source

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