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Newcastle University is a public research university located in Newcastle upon Tyne in the North-East of England. The University can trace its origins to a School of Medicine and Surgery , established in 1834, and to the College of Physical Science , founded in 1871. These two colleges came to form one division of the federal University of Durham, with the Durham Colleges forming the other. The Newcastle colleges merged to form King's College in 1937. In 1963, following an Act of Parliament, King's College became the University of Newcastle upon Tyne, and latterly, Newcastle University.Newcastle University can be described as a red brick university and is a member of the Russell Group, an association of research-intensive UK universities. The university has one of the largest EU research portfolios in the UK. Newcastle attracts over 20,000 students from more than 120 different countries. Teaching and research are delivered in 24 academic schools and 40 research institutes and research centres, spread across three Faculties: the Faculty of Humanities and Social science; the Faculty of Medical science; and the Faculty of Science, Agriculture and Engineering. The university offers around 175 full-time undergraduate degree programmes in a wide range of subject areas spanning arts, science, engineering and medicine, together with approximately 340 postgraduate taught and research programmes across a range of disciplines. Wikipedia.

Jeffrey A.,Newcastle University
Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers | Year: 2011

This paper examines how geographers can contribute to debates concerning transitional justice. Recent scholarship in criminology has identified a residual 'legalism' in the enactment and study of transitional justice: trial processes and the perspectives of jurists have been prioritised over wider processes of social healing and the perceptions of non-legal actors. This paper explores how geographers can contribute to challenging this prioritisation of legal processes within the study and practice of transitional justice. This is achieved through an examination of attempts to establish forms of transitional justice in Bosnia and Herzegovina since the end of the war in 1995. Specifically, the paper explores the establishment in 2005 of the War Crimes Chamber of the Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the civil society-based strategies it has employed to reach out to witnesses and victim populations. The paper makes two interlinked arguments. First, it examines how the international response to the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina placed justice at a distance from victim communities. Second, the paper argues that civil society activities undertaken to widen access to justice have opened up new spaces of deliberation and critique. It is argued that these spatialities point to possibilities of deliberative conceptions of justice fostered beyond legal institutions and processes. © 2011 The Author. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers © 2011 Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers). Source

Nettle D.,Newcastle University
Behavioral Ecology | Year: 2010

Where the expected reproductive life span is short, theory predicts that individuals should follow a "fast" life-history strategy of early reproduction, reduced investment in each offspring, and high reproductive rate. I apply this prediction to different neighborhood environments in contemporary England. There are substantial differences in the expectation of healthy life between the most deprived and most affluent neighborhoods. Using data from the Millennium Cohort Study (n = 8660 families), I show that in deprived neighborhoods compared with affluent ones, age at first birth is younger, birthweights are lower, and breastfeeding duration is shorter. There is also indirect evidence that reproductive rates are higher. Coresidence of a father figure is less common, and contact with maternal grandmothers is less frequent, though grandmaternal contact shows a curvilinear relationship with neighborhood quality. Children from deprived neighborhoods perform less well on a verbal cognitive assessment at age 5 years, and this deficit is partly mediated by parental age and investment variables. I suggest that fast life history is a comprehensible response, produced through phenotypic plasticity, to the ecological context of poverty, but one that entails specific costs to children. Source

Nettle D.,Newcastle University
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2011

From an ultimate perspective, the age of onset of female reproduction should be sensitive to variation in mortality rates, and variation in the productivity of non-reproductive activities. In accordance with this prediction, most of the cross-national variation in women's age at first birth can be explained by differences in female life expectancies and incomes. The within-country variation in England shows a similar pattern: women have children younger in neighbourhoods where the expectation of healthy life is shorter and incomes are lower. I consider the proximate mechanisms likely to be involved in producing locally appropriate reproductive decisions. There is evidence suggesting that developmental induction, social learning and contextual evocation may all play a role. © 2011 The Royal Society. Source

Nettle D.,Newcastle University
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2012

The complexity of different components of the grammars of human languages can be quantified. For example, languages vary greatly in the size of their phonological inventories, and in the degree to which they make use of inflectional morphology. Recent studies have shown that there are relationships between these types of grammatical complexity and the number of speakers a language has. Languages spoken by large populations have been found to have larger phonological inventories, but simpler morphology, than languages spoken by small populations. The results require further investigation, and, most importantly, the mechanism whereby the social context of learning and use affects the grammatical evolution of a language needs elucidation. © 2012 The Royal Society. Source

Lilic D.,Newcastle University
Current Opinion in Microbiology | Year: 2012

Fungal infections affect individuals with an impaired immune system and are on the increase, often with serious consequences. Recent studies in patients with primary immune deficiencies (PIDs) have led to important breakthroughs in our understanding of the different, mutually exclusive pathways underlying immunity to mucocutaneous as opposed to invasive fungal infections. Patients with defects affecting segments of innate (dectin-1, CARD9, IL12RB1) or adaptive immunity (interleukin (IL)17-F, IL-17 receptor, STAT1, STAT3, antibodies to Th-17 cytokines) that disrupt the Th-17 pathway, are unable to clear superficial Candida or Dermatophyte infections and suffer with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). Patients with defects affecting phagocyte function (oxidative killing, neutropenia) or a severely impaired immune system are at risk of developing invasive, often fatal fungal disease with Aspergillus, Candida, Cryptococcai and other fungi. PIDs are hugely beneficial in promoting our knowledge of fungal immunity and provide important contributions toward evidence-based diagnosis and improved patient care. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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