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Wilson K.,Ottawa Hospital Research Institute | Wilson K.,University of Ottawa | Potter B.,University of Ottawa | Manuel D.,Ottawa Hospital Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Medical Hypotheses | Year: 2010

In the early 1980's concerns about the safety of the whole cell pertussis vaccine in the United States resulted in declining vaccination rates and the withdrawal of multiple vaccine providers from the market. While the possibility of inflammation and febrile reactions to the vaccine were acknowledged by public health authorities, parents also claimed the vaccine was associated with sudden infant death syndrome and encephalopathy. Epidemiological studies examining this question, however, consistently failed to identify an association. We argue that these reactions may have occurred in metabolically vulnerable children, specifically those with defects in fatty acid oxidation. In these children the combination of anorexia and fever that could be caused by the vaccine may have resulted in hypoglycemic episodes and possibly death. We believe that this association was not detected because these conditions were not recognized at the time and because these conditions are uncommon. Nevertheless, at a population level, enough events could have occurred to cause concern amongst parents. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Al-Muhsen S.,King Faisal Specialist Hospital And Research Center | Al-Muhsen S.,King Saud University | Al-Owain M.,King Faisal Specialist Hospital And Research Center | Al-Owain M.,Alfaisal University | And 13 more authors.
Clinical and Developmental Immunology | Year: 2010

Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator gene (AIRE). Terminal 4q deletion is also a rare cytogenetic abnormality that causes a variable syndrome of dysmorphic features, mental retardation, growth retardation, and heart and limb defects. We report a 12-year-old Saudi boy with mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism, and adrenocortical failure consistent with APECED. In addition, he has dysmorphic facial features, growth retardation, and severe global developmental delay. Patient had late development of chronic renal failure. The blastogenesis revealed depressed lymphocytes' response to Candida albicans at 38 when compared to control. Chromosome analysis of the patient revealed 46,XY,del(4)(q33). FISH using a 4p/4q subtelomere DNA probe assay confirmed the deletion of qter subtelomere on chromosome 4. Parental chromosomes were normal. The deleted array was further defined using array CGH. AIRE full gene sequencing revealed a homozygous mutation namely 845-846insC. Renal biopsy revealed chronic interstitial nephritis with advanced fibrosis. In addition, there was mesangial deposition of C3, C1q, and IgM. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first paper showing evidence of autoimmune nephropathy by renal immunofluorescence in a patient with APECED and terminal 4q deletion. Copyright © 2010 Mohammed Al-Owain et al.

Imtiaz F.,King Faisal Specialist Hospital And Research Center | Taibah K.,Medical Center | Ramzan K.,King Faisal Specialist Hospital And Research Center | Bin-Khamis G.,King Faisal Specialist Hospital And Research Center | And 10 more authors.
BMC Medical Genetics | Year: 2011

Background: Hearing loss is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder. Mutations in the DFNB1 locus have been reported to be the most common cause of autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss worldwide. Apart from DFNB1, many other loci and their underlying genes have also been identified and the basis of our study was to provide a comprehensive introduction to the delineation of the molecular basis of non-syndromic hearing loss in the Saudi Arabian population. This was performed by screening DFNB1 and to initiate prioritized linkage analysis or homozygosity mapping for a pilot number of families in which DFNB1 has been excluded.Methods: Individuals from 130 families of Saudi Arabian tribal origin diagnosed with an autosomal recessive non-syndromic sensorineural hearing loss were screened for mutations at the DFNB1 locus by direct sequencing. If negative, genome wide linkage analysis or homozygosity mapping were performed using Affymetrix GeneChip®Human Mapping 250K/6.0 Arrays to identify regions containing any known-deafness causing genes that were subsequently sequenced.Results: Our results strongly indicate that DFNB1 only accounts for 3% of non-syndromic hearing loss in the Saudi Arabian population of ethnic ancestry. Prioritized linkage analysis or homozygosity mapping in five separate families established that their hearing loss was caused by five different known-deafness causing genes thus confirming the genetic heterogeneity of this disorder in the kingdom.Conclusion: The overall results of this study are highly suggestive that underlying molecular basis of autosomal recessive non-syndromic deafness in Saudi Arabia is very genetically heterogeneous. In addition, we report that the preliminary results indicate that there does not seem to be any common or more prevalent loci, genes or mutations in patients with autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss in patients of Saudi Arabian tribal origin. © 2011 Imtiaz et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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