New Zealand Institute Of Crop and Food Research

Christchurch, New Zealand

New Zealand Institute Of Crop and Food Research

Christchurch, New Zealand

The Institute for Crop and Food Research was formed in 1992 as a New Zealand-based biological science Crown Research Institute researching new knowledge in five main areas: sustainable water and land use high performance plants personalised foods high value marine products biomolecules and biomaterialsIt had an annual turnover of approximately $53 million and a staff of 370. Its research funding came from a mix of local and international industry and government sources, and its research spanned both fundamental and applied research.On 6 June 2003, a Piper Navajo Chieftain on a charter flight from Palmerston North to Christchurch crashed on approach to Christchurch Airport, killing the pilot and seven Crop and Food employees, and seriously injuring two others.On 1 December 2008 Crop & Food Research merged with HortResearch to form New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research trading as Plant and Food Research. Wikipedia.

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Pask A.J.D.,University of Nottingham | Sylvester-Bradley R.,ADAS Boxworth | Jamieson P.D.,New Zealand Institute Of Crop and Food Research | Foulkes M.J.,University of Nottingham
Field Crops Research | Year: 2012

To reduce crop N requirements without reducing productivity it will be important to identify and quantify the inessential N in crop canopies. Field experiments established in October 2005 and October 2006 at ADAS Terrington, UK, and in June 2006 at Lincoln, New Zealand, tested wide-ranging N levels applied to one variety of feed winter wheat. Amounts of structural, photosynthetic and reserve N (SN, PN and RN, respectively) were defined and measured in components of the crop canopy (leaf lamina, leaf sheath, true stem and ear/chaff and grain) at anthesis and harvest, and the amounts of N remobilised from the PN and RN pools were calculated. At anthesis, RN accumulated for all N treatments in all experiments, and accounted for 44% of above-ground N (AGN) in optimally fertilised crops. This RN was principally located in the true stem, but was observed in all crop components at non-limiting fertiliser N treatments. Post-anthesis, RN appeared to be remobilised in preference to PN, thereby contributing to the maintenance of green area during the grain-filling phase and photo-assimilate production. The efficiency of post-anthesis N remobilisation of true stem RN was low (48%) compared to chaff (56%), leaf sheath (61%) and leaf laminae (76%), and in well fertilised crops significant quantities of '. accumulation' RN remained in true stem at harvest. The accumulation of significant quantities of RN at anthesis, even with deficient N supplies, suggests that it has a functional role during the grain-filling phase of growth. As '. accumulation RN' does not contribute to either the quantity or quality of grain, it reduces N-utilisation efficiency (UTE). Potential to improve UTE exists through increasing RN use during grain-filling and reducing '. accumulation RN' in non-photosynthetic organs. © 2011 Elsevier B.V..


Heenan S.P.,University of Otago | DufourJ.-P. Jean-Pierre,University of Otago | Hamid N.,University of Otago | Harvey W.,New Zealand Institute Of Crop and Food Research | Delahunty C.M.,University of Otago
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2010

The sensory qualities related to consumer freshness perceptions are dependant on the food considered. However, it is not clear how ingredients in combination with baked product shelf-life influence consumer judgements of freshness. A range of model cake samples (n 1/4 24) were produced using a 4 × 3 × 2 factorial design, which included four different sweeteners, three different fat types and two different times from baking. Descriptive sensory analysis was carried out on all cake samples, using a panel of ten trained assessors and a defined vocabulary of 31 terms. The sensory properties of cakes were significantly (p < 0.05) influenced by sweetener type, fat type and time from baking. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed twelve cake samples with the largest sensory variation that were further selected for consumer testing. Representative consumers (n 1/4 120) rated the perceived freshness of the selected samples. Consumer perceptions of freshness were significantly (p < 0.05) influenced by sweetener type, fat type and storage. Three consumer segments that were homogenous in their freshness perceptions were identified. Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) was applied to determine relationships between sensory descriptions of samples and consumers' freshness perception of samples in each segment. Using PLSR models, consumer freshness perceptions for the twelve remaining cakes not evaluated by consumers, but assessed by descriptive sensory analysis, were predicted for each consumer segment. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.


Douglas M.H.,New Zealand Institute Of Crop and Food Research | Smallfield B.M.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd | Wallace A.R.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd | McGimpsey J.A.,New Zealand Institute Of Crop and Food Research
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2014

The three year study of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) production from 27 mother corm weight grades, investigated mother corm progeny multiplication, corm weight, flower number and fresh stigma yield. Annual production results were pooled into 9 mother corm weight classes (0.5, 1-2, 3-5, 6-10, 11-15, 16-20, 22-30, 34-36, 38-53. g), and 5 progeny corm weight grades (<5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-20, >20. g). Yearly production equations were fitted for total progeny corm number and weight from the 27 mother corm classes. In year 1, the fitted asymptotic curve showed mother corm weight above 16. g had little effect on progeny corm number, but in year 2, a linear relationship showed the production of progeny corms was not constrained by the original mother corm weight, while in year 3, progeny corm number was constrained to an asymptote of 69 corms per original mother corm. We measured large changes in the distribution of progeny corm size over the three generations. For the three respective harvest years mother corms >33. g produced 22, 47 and 22% of their progeny corms >10. g and of these 6, 30 and 0.4% were >20. g. For the three respective harvest years, mother corm weight classes >33. g, produced 7, 30 and 69 progeny corms with a weight of 60, 406 and 427. g, while the 11-15. g mother corm class produced 4.8, 10.3, and 45 progeny corms with a weight of 35, 144 and 356. g. Cumulative flowering followed a typical sigmoid curve with the main flowering period for the heavier grades of mother corms finishing after 45 days in the first year and 25-30 days in the two subsequent years. Smaller corms flowered 5-7 days later than the largest corms, while mother corms lighter than 2. g produced very few flowers. The mother corm weight classes >. 33. g produced 4, 16 and 48 flowers and 115, 627 and 1905. mg of fresh stigma per original corm over the three generations. In contrast the 11-15. g mother corm weight class produced 1, 4 and 20 flowers and 29, 171 and 906. mg fresh stigma per original corm. We conclude the flower and fresh stigma production is highest in a 3 year management cycle, but if large progeny corms are desired a 2 year management cycle would produce more large progeny corms. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | New Zealand Institute Of Crop and Food Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik | Year: 2013

A method for isolating and characterizing homozygous S-allele lines of brassicas is described. The tester plants used are produced by crossing the parent plants with a recessive S-allele homozygote. The full method uses reciprocal crosses to identify and characterize the lines immediately. When flowering is prolonged and enables further tests to be carried out, a more efficient method that only uses single crosses initially can be used.


PubMed | New Zealand Institute Of Crop and Food Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik | Year: 2013

Hordeum bulbosum L. is a source of disease resistance genes that would be worthwhile transferring to barley (H. vulgare L.). To achieve this objective, selfed seed from a tetraploid H. vulgare x H. bulbosum hybrid was irradiated. Subsequently, a powdery mildew-resistant selection of barley phenotype (81882/83) was identified among field-grown progeny. Using molecular analyses, we have established that the H. bulbosum DNA containing the powdery mildew resistance gene had been introgressed into 81882/83 and is located on chromosome 2 (2I). Resistant plants have been backcrossed to barley to remove the adverse effects of a linked factor conditioning triploid seed formation, but there remains an association between powdery mildew resistance and non-pathogenic necrotic leaf blotching. The dominant resistance gene is allelic to a gene transferred from H. bulbosum by co-workers in Germany, but non-allelic to all other known powdery mildew resistance genes in barley. We propose Mlhb as a gene symbol for this resistance.


PubMed | New Zealand Institute Of Crop and Food Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik | Year: 2013

Genebank seed accessions of predominantly self-pollinating species may be stored either as bulked (mixed) seed lines or as pure line cultivars. If seed lines are bulked in storage then when considered over several regeneration cycles, loss of genetic diversity within heterogeneous self pollinating genebank accessions is shown to be severe. This within-accession loss of diversity represents opportunities foregone through the random loss of individual genotypes. Amongst working collections, the utility and repeatability of genebank accessions is paramount in the justification of the germ plasm resource. Therefore, the only practical solution to the management of predominantly self-pollinating species is to preserve individual accessions as pure lines.


PubMed | New Zealand Institute Of Crop and Food Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik | Year: 2013

Linkage analysis was used to determine the genetic map location of er-1, a recessive gene conditioning resistance to powdery mildew, on the Pisum sativum genome. Genetic linkage was demonstrated between er-1 and linkage group 6 markers after analyzing the progeny of two crosses, an F2 population and a set of recombinant inbred lines. The classes of genetic markers surrounding er-1 include RFLP, RAPD and allozyme markers as well as the morphological marker Gty. A RAPD marker tightly linked to er-1 was identified by bulked segregant analysis. After DNA sequence characterization, specific PCR primers were designed to convert this RAPD marker into a sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR).


PubMed | New Zealand Institute Of Crop and Food Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik | Year: 2013

Interspecific hybridisations between Hordeum vulgare L. (cultivated barley) and H. bulbosum L. (bulbous barley grass) have been carried out to transfer desirable traits, such as disease resistance, from the wild species into barley. In this paper we report the results of an extensive backcrossing programme of triploid hybrids (H. vulgare 2x x H. bulbosum 4x) to two cultivars of H. vulgare. Progenies were characterised cytologically and by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and comprised (1) haploid and diploid H. vulgare plants, (2) hybrids and aneuploids, (3) single and double monosomic substitutions of H. bulbosum chromosomes into H. vulgare and (4) chromosomal rearrangements and recombinants. Five out of the seven possible single monosomic chromosome substitutions have now been identified amongst backcross progeny and will be valuable for directed gene introgression and genome homoeology studies. The presence amongst progeny of 1 plant with an H. vulgare-H. bulbosum translocated chromosome and one recombinant indicates the value of fertile triploid hybrids for interspecific gene introgression.


PubMed | New Zealand Institute Of Crop and Food Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik | Year: 2013

For ex-situ germplasm conservation purposes, the concept of genetic diversity being concentrated in certain geographic regions is useful for the conscious selection of diverse forms. Numerous studies of barley and other major corp species often confirm the concentration of simply-inherited, phenotypicallyobvious markers within the Vavilovian centres of diversity/origin. However, more recent studies of electrophoretic patterns and or more complexly-inherited traits do not always confirm the same geographic patterns. Unfortunately, few studies of world germplasm collections have screened a range of agro/morphological/electrophoretic patterns using the same germplasm collection as a consistent base for evaluation purposes, making precise genetic estimates of diverse geographic areas difficult. A diverse collection of 1 118 spring-sown barley cultivars was, therefore, evaluated for both agro/morphological and biochemical genetic markers in an effort to identify appropriate criteria for the construction of a comprehensive ex-situ germplasm collection. On the basis of both agro/morphological and biochemical data, countries whose cultivated barley germplasm was identified as diverse and genetically distinct were Algeria, Afghanistan, Argentina, Ethiopia, India, Peru and Turkey. However, within broad limits, separate cluster analyses of the agro-morphological and electrophoretic patterns identified dissimilar groups of countries, which demonstrated that a collection strategy based solely on country of origin is inappropriate.


PubMed | New Zealand Institute Of Crop and Food Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Plant cell reports | Year: 2013

A reliable Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method has been developed for peas (Pisum sativum) using immature cotyledons as the explant source. Transgenic plants were recovered from the four cultivars tested: Bolero, Trounce, Bohatyr and Huka. The method takes approximately 7 months from explant to seed-bearing primary regenerant. The binary vector used carried genes for kanamycin and phosphinothricin resistance. Transformed pea plants were selected on 10 mg/l phosphinothricin. The nptII and bar genes were shown to be stably inherited through the first sexual generation of transformed plants. Expression of the phosphinothricin-resistance gene in the transformed plants was demonstrated using the Buster (=Basta) leaf-paint test and the phosphinothricin acetyl transferase enzyme assay.

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