Christchurch, New Zealand

New Zealand Forest Research Institute

www.scionresearch.com
Christchurch, New Zealand

Scion, officially registered as New Zealand Forest Research Institute Limited, is a New Zealand Crown Research Institute with its primary areas of research, science and technology development being in the areas of forestry, wood products, wood-derived materials and other biomaterials sectors. Wikipedia.

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Patent
New Zealand Forest Research Institute | Date: 2016-11-30

A process for producing pellets or granules comprising fibres of a lignocellulousic material, for use as a feedstock in plastics manufacture, conveying in a dry or wet air stream and applying to the fibres a liquid formulation comprising one or more polymers, monomers, or oligomers, forming the fibres into a solid product, and breaking down the solid product to produce said pellets or granules. Typically the conduit conveys the fibres in a plant for manufacture of fibre board.


Ball R.D.,New Zealand Forest Research Institute
Genetics | Year: 2011

In genome-wide association studies hundreds of thousands of loci are scanned in thousands of cases and controls, with the goal of identifying genomic loci underpinning disease. This is a challenging statistical problem requiring strong evidence. Only a small proportion of the heritability of common diseases has so far been explained. This "dark matter of the genome" is a subject of much discussion. It is critical to have experimental design criteria that ensure that associations between genomic loci and phenotypes are robustly detected. To ensure associations are robustly detected we require good power (e.g., 0.8) and sufficiently strong evidence [i.e., a high Bayes factor (e.g., 10 6, meaning the data are 1 million times more likely if the association is real than if there is no association)] to overcome the low prior odds for any given marker in a genome scan to be associated with a causal locus. Power calculations are given for determining the sample sizes necessary to detect effects with the required power and Bayes factor for biallelic markers in linkage disequilibrium with causal loci in additive, dominant, and recessive genetic models. Significantly stronger evidence and larger sample sizes are required than indicated by traditional hypothesis tests and power calculations. Many reported putative effects are not robustly detected and many effects including some large moderately low-frequency effects may remain undetected. These results may explain the dark matter in the genome. The power calculations have been implemented in R and will be available in the R package ldDesign.


Wingfield M.J.,University of Pretoria | Brockerhoff E.G.,New Zealand Forest Research Institute | Wingfield B.D.,University of Pretoria | Slippers B.,University of Pretoria
Science | Year: 2015

Several key tree genera are used in planted forests worldwide, and these represent valuable global resources. Planted forests are increasingly threatened by insects and microbial pathogens, which are introduced accidentally and/or have adapted to new host trees. Globalization has hastened tree pest emergence, despite a growing awareness of the problem, improved understanding of the costs, and an increased focus on the importance of quarantine. To protect the value and potential of planted forests, innovative solutions and a better-coordinated global approach are needed. Mitigation strategies that are effective only in wealthy countries fail to contain invasions elsewhere in the world, ultimately leading to global impacts. Solutions to forest pest problems in the future should mainly focus on integrating management approaches globally, rather than single-country strategies. A global strategy to manage pest issues is vitally important and urgently needed.


Ball R.D.,New Zealand Forest Research Institute
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

In this chapter we describe a novel Bayesian approach to designing GWAS studies with the goal of ensuring robust detection of effects of genomic loci associated with trait variation. The goal of GWAS is to detect loci associated with variation in traits of interest. Finding which of 500,000 - 1,000,000 loci has a practically significant effect is a difficult statistical problem, like finding a needle in a haystack. We address this problem by designing experiments to detect effects with a given Bayes factor, where the Bayes factor is chosen sufficiently large to overcome the low prior odds for genomic associations. Methods are given for various possible data structures including random population samples, case-control designs, transmission disequilibrium tests, sib-based transmission disequilibrium tests, and other family-based designs including designs for plants with clonal replication. We also consider the problem of eliciting prior information from experts, which is necessary to quantify prior odds for loci. We advocate a "subjective" Bayesian approach, where the prior distribution is considered as a mathematical representation of our prior knowledge, while also giving generic formulae that allow conservative computations based on low prior information, e.g., equivalent to the information in a single sample point. Examples using R and the R packages ldDesign are given throughout. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2013.


Suckling D.M.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd | Brockerhoff E.G.,New Zealand Forest Research Institute
Annual Review of Entomology | Year: 2010

Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), the light brown apple moth (LBAM), is an important leafroller pest with an exceptionally wide host range that includes many horticultural crops and other woody and herbaceous plants. LBAM is native to southeastern Australia but has invaded Western Australia, New Zealand, Hawaii, much of England, and in 2007, it was confirmed as established in California. The discovery of this pest in California has led to a major detection and regulatory effort because of concerns about economic and environmental impacts. Its recent discovery in Sweden is also of note. LBAM has often been intercepted on imports of fruit and other plant parts, and it has the potential to become a successful invader in temperate and subtropical regions worldwide. The importance of the insect has prompted development of classical biological control programs together with a wide variety of other management interventions that can be used in integrated pest management or integrated pest eradication. © 2010 by Annual Reviews All rights reserved.


Liebhold A.M.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Brockerhoff E.G.,New Zealand Forest Research Institute | Garrett L.J.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Parke J.L.,Oregon State University | Britton K.O.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment | Year: 2012

Trade in live plants has been recognized worldwide as an important invasion pathway for non-native plant pests. Such pests can have severe economic and ecological consequences. Nearly 70% of damaging forest insects and pathogens established in the US between 1860 and 2006 most likely entered on imported live plants. The current regulation of plant imports is outdated and needs to balance the impacts of pest damage, the expense of mitigation efforts, and the benefits of live plant importation. To inform these discussions, we document large increases in the volume and value of plant imports over the past five decades and explain recent and proposed changes to plant import regulations. Two data sources were used to estimate the infestation rate of regulated pests in live plant shipments entering the US, thus allowing evaluation of the efficacy of the current port inspection process. © The Ecological Society of America.


Patent
New Zealand Forest Research Institute | Date: 2014-12-19

An aqueous adhesive composition and a process for preparing such compositions are disclosed. The composition comprises macromolecular complex comprising (A) a first component comprising (i) a framework element and (ii) a polyphenol, and (B) second component comprising a polypeptide, oligopeptide, amino acid, or polyamine. The framework element comprises (a) a polypeptide, oligopeptide, amino acid, or polyamine, (b) a polysaccharide, oligosaccharide, or monosaccharide, or a saccharide conjugate, or (c) a lignin, a lignan or a lignin conjugate. The polyphenol comprises a tannin, a tannic acid, a flavonoid, or a poly-resorcinol. An adhesive precursor composition comprising the first component is also disclosed.


Patent
New Zealand Forest Research Institute | Date: 2010-06-30

A process for producing a composite product comprising fibres of a lignocellulosic material or natural fibres and a plastics material utilises a liquid or particulate binder formulation comprising a thermoset resin and a thermoplastic polymer, monomer, or oligomer. A composite product is formed for use as or in forming a feedstock in plastics manufacture may be broken down under heat and mechanical shearing in a plastics extrusion machine to release the major fraction of the fibres, or the product may be useful as an intermediate product in other form or as an end product.


Patent
New Zealand Forest Research Institute | Date: 2013-10-09

A process for removing water and solutes from the lumens of green wood, while leaving the cell walls throughout the wood uniformally fully swollen, comprises subjecting the green wood to supercritical carbon dioxide.


Patent
New Zealand Forest Research Institute | Date: 2010-06-30

A measuring system comprising: a MIMS probe 1 comprising a membrane inlet 3, a mass spectrometer 2 coupled to the probe, and a vibrator controllable 7 to vibrate the probe 1 to disturb a boundary layer 13 at the membrane inlet 3 when the probe 1 is in a liquid under analysis.

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