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Addington, New Zealand

Dickson M.,New Zealand Blood Service | Dinesh D.,Blood and Cancer Center
New Zealand Medical Journal | Year: 2013

Aims To identify the rate of bacterial contamination of platelet concentrates in New Zealand and compare with other countries who use the BacT/ALERT screening system. To report on septic transfusion reactions associated with platelet transfusion in New Zealand. Methods Six mL of platelet concentrate is inoculated into a BacT/ALERT BPA (aerobic culture) bottle on Day 2 post-collection. Bottles that are flagged as positive are sent to the microbiology laboratory, with the associated unit, for confirmatory testing. Platelet units that have expired are sampled again. Results from the four blood processing sites in New Zealand were reviewed. Results 59,461 (65%) platelet components were sampled on Day 2 and 15,560 (17%) were re-sampled post-expiry, between December 2003 and September 2011. The rate of confirmed bacterial contamination was 0.04% for Day 2 sampling and 0.04% for post-expiry sampling. The rate in the published literature ranges from 0.01-0.74% and is lower (0.01-0.18%) when diversion of the initial flow of blood is utilised. There were five bacterial transfusion transmitted infections associated with platelet transfusion reported during the study period. Conclusions: BacT/ALERT screening reduces the transfusion of bacterially contaminated platelet concentrates. Day 2 sampling does not identify all contaminated units. © NZMA. Source


Badami K.G.,New Zealand Blood Service
Medical Hypotheses | Year: 2015

Antibodies to red blood cell (RBC), platelet, and neutrophil antigens, and IgA may cause serious clinical problems. With a few exceptions, preventing these conditions is a matter of limiting exposure to the foreign antigen while treatment consists of managing the consequences. Might immune tolerance induction (ITI) be possible and beneficial in these situations?Neonatal exposure to antigens is known to induce central tolerance. However central tolerance may not be absolute. Factors that determine whether an antibody will be produced in response to an antigen are not well understood but include the appropriate expression of major histocompatibility complex-class II and/or co-stimulatory molecules on dendritic cells, the presence or absence of adjuvants and whether or not the antigen is presented together with agonists for the toll-like receptor. Modifying these may prevent alloimmunization. Peripheral tolerance, in sensitized individuals, as routinely used in patients with allergic/anaphylactic reactions, those with haemophilia A or B with inhibitors and acquired haemophilia, may also be possible. Briefly, monitored, graded, increasing exposure to the antigen of interest with or without additional immunosuppression is used.Neither central nor peripheral ITI has been tried or suggested for individuals sensitizable or sensitised to RBC, platelet, and neutrophil antigens, or IgA. Theoretically, this is possible and may be of benefit. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Edinur H.A.,Victoria University of Wellington | Dunn P.P.J.,New Zealand Blood Service | Lea R.A.,Griffith University | Chambers G.K.,Victoria University of Wellington
International Journal of Immunogenetics | Year: 2013

Summary: In recent years, with the application of genotyping technology, there has been a substantial increase in the number of reported blood group alleles. This survey was designed to evaluate new molecular blood group genotyping methods and compile reference blood group data sets for Polynesian and Maori subjects. Subsequent analyses of these results were used to calculate probability of random match, to trace Polynesian ancestry and migration patterns and to reveal past and present episodes of genetic admixture. Genomic DNA samples from Maori and Polynesian subjects were drawn from the Victoria University of Wellington DNA Bank and genotyped using combination of commercial PCR-SSP kits, hybridization SNP assay services or sequence-based typing. This survey also involves compilation of serological ABO and Rhesus blood group data from RakaiPaaka Iwi tribal members for comparison with those generated during our molecular blood group study. We observed perfect consistency between results obtained from all molecular methods for blood group genotyping. The A, O, DCcEe, DCCee, MNs, K-k+, Jk(a+b-), Jk(a+b+), Fy(a+b-), Fy(a+b+), Di(a+b-), Co(a+b-) and Do(a-b+) were predominant blood group phenotypes in both Polynesians and Maori. Overall, our survey data show only small differences in distributions of blood group phenotypes between Polynesian and Maori groups and their subgroups. These differences might be associated with selection, population history and gene flow from Europeans. In each case, we estimate that patients with certain blood groups have a very low probability of an exact phenotypic match, even if the patients were randomly transfused with blood from donors of their own ethnicity. The best way to avoid haemolytic transfusion reaction in such cases is to perform a pretransfusion cross-match and recruit increased numbers of donors with rare phenotype profiles. The conclusion of this study is that application of molecular method covering as many known variants as possible may help to improve the accuracy blood group genotyping and potentially conserve the routine requirements of transfusion centres. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source


Dickson M.,New Zealand Blood Service
The New Zealand medical journal | Year: 2013

To identify the rate of bacterial contamination of platelet concentrates in New Zealand and compare with other countries who use the BacT/ALERT screening system. To report on septic transfusion reactions associated with platelet transfusion in New Zealand. Six mL of platelet concentrate is inoculated into a BacT/ALERT BPA (aerobic culture) bottle on Day 2 post-collection. Bottles that are flagged as positive are sent to the microbiology laboratory, with the associated unit, for confirmatory testing. Platelet units that have expired are sampled again. Results from the four blood processing sites in New Zealand were reviewed. 59,461 (65%) platelet components were sampled on Day 2 and 15,560 (17%) were re-sampled post-expiry, between December 2003 and September 2011. The rate of confirmed bacterial contamination was 0.04% for Day 2 sampling and 0.04% for post-expiry sampling. The rate in the published literature ranges from 0.01-0.74% and is lower (0.01-0.18%) when diversion of the initial flow of blood is utilised. There were five bacterial transfusion transmitted infections associated with platelet transfusion reported during the study period. BacT/ALERT screening reduces the transfusion of bacterially contaminated platelet concentrates. Day 2 sampling does not identify all contaminated units. Source


Carter M.C.,Scottish National Blood Transfusion Service | Wilson J.,Scottish National Blood Transfusion Service | Redpath G.S.,Scottish National Blood Transfusion Service | Hayes P.,New Zealand Blood Service | Mitchell C.,Canadian Blood Services
Transfusion and Apheresis Science | Year: 2011

The first decade of the millennium has seen a fundamental shift in global sufficiency. In many developing countries the major challenge remains the need to collect sufficient, safe blood from volunteer non-remunerated blood donors to support developing health care needs. However, in the developed world the current challenges faced by blood services are more complex and constantly changing. This article will explore the impact of these challenges and consider the implications for blood services in the next decade in donor management and recruitment.The authors discuss the major strategic challenges of:. maintaining an adequate donor base with the correct blood group mix; intelligent inventory control; improving efficiency in the face of the current global economic climate; redesigning the donor experience;The paper discusses donor recruitment and retention strategies and provides case studies from the SNBTS marketing strategy. The paper discusses options to rethink the traditional supply and demand models.In conclusion, consider the potential challenges and opportunities of the next decade, considering: demographic changes and influences; impact of new technologies; demand trends; donor expectation. © 2011. Source

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