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Auckland, New Zealand

Grebennikov V.V.,Canadian Food Inspection Agency | Leschen R.A.B.,New Zealand Arthropod Collection
Entomological Science | Year: 2010

This paper reviews the occurrence of external exoskeletal cavities in beetles and provides critical reassessment of their possible mycangial function. In most reported cases, the decision to attribute mycangial function to exoskeletal cavities was based solely on the combination of two factors: (i) observation of these cavities on beetle's body; and (ii) knowledge that this particular beetle species uses fungi as a food source. Such reasoning resulted in the assumption, occasionally premature and not supported by other evidence, that exoskeletal pits in the following families may function as mycangia: Rhysodidae, Ptiliidae, Staphylinidae, Hybosoridae, Scarabaeidae, Derodontidae, Ptinidae, Jacobsoniidae, Boganiidae, Cryptophagidae, Endomychidae, Erotylidae, Latridiidae, Nitidulidae, Phloeostichidae, Silvanidae, Sphindidae, Pyrochroidae, Anthribidae, Attelabidae and Curculionidae. We conclude that only two beetle families include species with adequately documented cases of external exoskeletal mycangia: (i) Curculionidae (some Scolytinae and Platypodinae); and (ii) the structurally complex mycangia of Attelabidae (Euops females). One or more species of Sphindidae, Erotylidae, Silvanidae, and Latridiidae have likely functional mycangia. Exoskeletal pits with uncertain function are additionally reported from the following families: Cupedidae, Ommatidae, Lepiceridae, Carabidae, Histeridae, Hydraenidae, Leiodidae, Elmidae, Artematopodidae, Throscidae, Elateridae, Rhinorhipidae, Biphyllidae, Cerylonidae, Cyclaxyridae, Monotomidae, Mycetophagidae and Zopheridae. We also discuss the transport of fungal spores and conidia by waxy exudates or debris build up on beetle exoskeleton, as well as their passive attachment to the body. © 2010 The Entomological Society of Japan. Source


Yavorskaya M.I.,Institute For Spezielle Zoologie Und Evolutionsbiologie | Yavorskaya M.I.,Moscow State University | Leschen R.A.B.,New Zealand Arthropod Collection | Polilov A.A.,Moscow State University | Beutel R.G.,Institute For Spezielle Zoologie Und Evolutionsbiologie
Arthropod Structure and Development | Year: 2014

The head morphology of larvae of two undescribed species of the corylophid genus Holopsis were examined. Both are associated with the same basidiomycete host Ganoderma cf applanatum. Whereas the round and convex adults are very similar, one of the disc-shaped larvae is characterized by an elongate weevil-like snout, which is a unique feature in larval beetles. The posterior head region, the mouthparts and the general configuration of the musculature are similar in the larvae of both species. However, in the rostrate Holopsis sp. 1 most muscles are either widened along the longitudinal axis or elongated. Moreover, an additional bundle of M. frontobuccalis posterior is present, which strengthens the pharyngeal pumping apparatus. Both species share an unusual connection between the prepharynx and pharynx. This is a potential autapomorphy of the genus. The larval cephalic morphology of Holopsis sp. 2 and the corylophine genus Sericoderus is quite similar. However, they differ in some muscular features and in the configuration of the foregut. Holopsis species are associated with Basidiomycetes. Whether this is an ancestral condition in Corylophidae remains ambiguous due to conflicting phylogenetic hypotheses and the largely unknown biology of the Australian subfamily Periptyctinae. Several features of Holopsis are likely plesiomorphic and possibly related with the association with basidiomycetes. However, the larval rostrum of sp. 1 is doubtlessly derived, and could have a performance advantage over other species feeding on the spores of Ganoderma cf applanatum including Holopsis sp. 2. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Montgomery M.E.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Shiyake S.,Osaka Museum of Natural History | Havill N.P.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Leschen R.A.B.,New Zealand Arthropod Collection
Annals of the Entomological Society of America | Year: 2011

Laricobius osakensis Montgomery and Shiyake sp. nov., collected from Adelges tsugae Annand on hemlock [Tsuga sieboldii Carr. and Tsuga diversifolia (Maxim.) Mast.] in Japan, is described and illustrated. The new species was collected from several localities on Honshu, Shikokou, and Kyushu Islands. The genus has not been reported previously from Japan. Morphological features, a molecular phylogeny, and diagnostic DNA sites are provided to distinguish this new species from previously described species of the genus. Because of plans to release L. osakensis for the biological control of A. tsugae in eastern North America, a key and discussion are provided to differentiate it from the native North American species, Laricobius nigrinus Fender, Laricobius laticollis Fall, and Laricobius rubidus LeConte, and from two previously imported species-Laricobius erichsonii Rosenhauer, which is endemic in Europe, and Laricobius kangdingensis Zilahi-Balogh & Jelinek, which is endemic in China. © 2011 Entomological Society of America. Source

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