New York UniversityNew York

New York City, United States

New York UniversityNew York

New York City, United States
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Siegel P.,York College | Warren R.,York College | Wang Z.,Columbia UniversityNew York | Yang J.,Columbia UniversityNew York | And 4 more authors.
Human Brain Mapping | Year: 2017

Research on automatic processes in fear has emphasized the provocation of fear responses rather than their attenuation. We have previously shown that the repeated presentation of feared images without conscious awareness via backward masking reduces avoidance of a live tarantula in spider-phobic participants. Herein we investigated the neural basis for these adaptive effects of masked exposure. 21 spider-phobic and 21 control participants, identified by a psychiatric interview, fear questionnaire, and approaching a live tarantula, viewed stimuli in each of three conditions: (1) very brief exposure (VBE) to masked images of spiders, severely limited awareness; (2) clearly visible exposure (CVE) to spiders, full awareness; and (3) masked images of flowers (control), severely limited awareness. Only VBE to masked spiders generated neural activity more strongly in phobic than in control participants, within subcortical fear, attention, higher-order language, and vision systems. Moreover, VBE activated regions that support fear processing in phobic participants without causing them to experience fear consciously. Counter-intuitively, CVE to the same spiders generated stronger neural activity in control rather than phobic participants within these and other systems. CVE deactivated regions supporting fear regulation and caused phobic participants to experience fear. CVE-induced activations also correlated with measures of explicit fear ratings, whereas VBE-induced activations correlated with measures of implicit fear (color-naming interference of spider words). These multiple dissociations between the effects of VBE and CVE to spiders suggest that limiting awareness of exposure to phobic stimuli through visual masking paradoxically facilitates their processing, while simultaneously minimizing the experience of fear. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Earley M.A.,New York University | Pham L.T.,New York UniversityNew York | April M.M.,New York UniversityNew York
Laryngoscope | Year: 2017

Objective: Review otolaryngology literature for awareness of neurotoxicity from general anesthesia in children. Recently, there has been increasing focus in anesthesia literature on the long-term effects of general anesthesia on neurodevelopment. Multiple animal models have demonstrated evidence of neurotoxicity from both inhalational and intravenous anesthetics. Cohort studies also have revealed modestly increased risk of adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in children exposed to a single episode of general anesthesia prior to 3 to 4 years of age, with stronger evidence for multiple exposures in this age range. Otolaryngologists may subject children to general anesthesia via procedures or tests, including computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and auditory brainstem response. Data Sources: PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science Review. Methods: A scoping review using the above databases was performed limited to January 2005 through December 2015. Articles were screened and reviewed based on predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: Initial search generated 3,909 articles. After 72 full text articles were reviewed, only seven articles mentioned neurotoxicity as a risk of general anesthesia in pediatric patients. Conclusion: Despite the high volume of pediatric otolaryngologic procedures performed annually, there remains limited awareness in our literature discussing neurotoxicity as an outcome. Prospective data from anesthesia literature is still pending; therefore, specific recommendations cannot be made at this time. Otolaryngologists should be aware of the concerns and work toward defining elective procedures, combining surgical procedures with other procedures or imaging, and reassessing the timing and frequency of various interventions under general anesthesia in young children. Laryngoscope, 2017 © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

Nayar K.,New York University | Voyles A.C.,New York UniversityNew York | Kiorpes L.,New York UniversityNew York | Di Martino A.,New York University
Autism Research | Year: 2017

We examined global and local visual processing in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) via a match-to-sample task using Kanizsa illusory contours (KIC). School-aged children with ASD (n=28) and age-matched typically developing controls (n=22; 7-13 years) performed a sequential match-to-sample between a solid shape (sample) and two illusory alternatives. We tracked eye gaze and behavioral performance in two task conditions: one with and one without local interference from background noise elements. While analyses revealed lower accuracy and longer reaction time in ASD in the condition with local interference only, eye tracking robustly captured ASD-related global atypicalities across both conditions. Specifically, relative to controls, children with ASD showed decreased fixations to KIC centers, indicating reduced global perception. Notably, they did not differ from controls in regard to fixations to local elements or touch response location. These results indicate impaired global perception in the absence of heightened local processing in ASD. They also underscore the utility of eye-tracking measures as objective indices of global/local visual processing strategies in ASD. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Schmid P.C.,ETH Zurich | Hackel L.M.,Stanford University | Jasperse L.,New York UniversityNew York | Amodio D.M.,New York University
Psychophysiology | Year: 2017

Reinforcement learning refers to the acquisition of approach or avoidance action tendencies through repeated reward/nonreward feedback. Although much research on reinforcement learning has focused on the striatum, the prefrontal cortex likely modulates this process. Given prior research demonstrating a consistent pattern of lateralized frontal cortical activity in affective responses and approach/avoidance tendencies in the EEG literature, we aimed to elucidate the role of frontal EEG asymmetry in reinforcement learning. Thirty-two participants completed a probabilistic selection task in which they learned to select some targets and avoid others though correct/incorrect feedback. EEG indices of frontal cortical asymmetry were computed from alpha power recorded at baseline and during task completion. We also examined the feedback-related negativity ERP component to assess feedback processing associated with activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. Results revealed that greater right-lateralized frontal cortical activity during learning was associated with better avoidance learning, but neither left- nor right-sided asymmetry reliably related to approach learning. Results also suggested that left frontal activity may relate to reinforcement feedback processing, as indicated by the feedback-related negativity (FRN). These findings offer preliminary evidence regarding the role of frontal cortical activity in reinforcement learning while integrating classic and contemporary research on lateralized frontal cortical functions. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

Cui X.,Guangzhou University | Lu Y.,New York UniversityNew York | Peng H.,Hong Kong Baptist University
Computational Statistics and Data Analysis | Year: 2017

Utilizing recent theoretical results in high dimensional statistical modeling, a flexible yet computationally simple approach is proposed to estimate the partially linear models. Motivated by the partial consistency phenomena, the nonparametric component in the partially linear model is modeled via incidental parameters and estimated by a simple local average over small partitions of the support of the nonparametric variables. The proposed least-squares based method seeks to strike a balance between computation burden and efficiency of the estimators while minimizing model bias. It is shown that given inconsistent estimators of the nonparametric component, square root-n consistent estimators of the parameters of the parametric component can be obtained with little loss in efficiency. Moreover, conditional on the parametric estimates, an optimal estimator of the nonparametric component can be obtained using classic nonparametric methods. The statistical inference problems regarding the parametric parameters and a two-population nonparametric testing problem regarding the nonparametric component are considered. The results show that the behavior of the test statistics is satisfactory. To assess the performance of the new method in comparison with other methods, three simulation studies are conducted and a real data set about risk factors of birth weights is analyzed. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Olin S.-C.S.,New York University | Chor K.H.B.,American Institutes of Research | Weaver J.,New York University | Duan N.,Columbia University | And 6 more authors.
Psychiatric Services | Year: 2015

Objective: Characteristics associated with participation in training in evidence-informed business and clinical practices by 346 outpatient mental health clinics licensed to treat youths in New York State were examined. Methods: Clinic characteristics extracted from state administrative data were used as proxies for variables that have been linked with adoption of innovation (extraorganizational factors, agency factors, clinic provider-level profiles, and clinic client-level profiles). Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess the independent effects of theoretical variables on the clinics' participation in state-supported business and clinical trainings between September 2011 and August 2013 and on the intensity of participation (low or high). Interaction effects between clinic characteristics and outcomes were explored. Results: Clinic characteristics were predictive of any participation in trainings but were less useful in predicting intensity of participation. Clinics affiliated with larger (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=.65, p<.01), more efficient agencies (AOR=.62, p<.05) and clinics that outsourced more clinical services (AOR=.60, p<.001) had lower odds of participating in any business-practice trainings. Participation in business trainings was associated with interaction effects between agency affiliation (hospital or community) and clinical staff capacity. Clinics with more full-time-equivalent clinical staff (AOR=1.52, p<.01) and a higher proportion of clients under age 18 (AOR=1.90, p<.001) had higher odds of participating in any clinical trainings. Participating clinics with larger proportions of youth clients had greater odds of being high adopters of clinical trainings (odds ratio=1.54, p<.01). Conclusions: Clinic characteristics associated with uptake of business and clinical training could be used to target state technical assistance efforts.

Manning K.B.,New York UniversityNew York | Shtukenberg A.G.,New York UniversityNew York | Nichols S.M.,New York UniversityNew York | Kahr B.,New York UniversityNew York | Weck M.,New York UniversityNew York
Journal of Polymer Science, Part A: Polymer Chemistry | Year: 2015

N-(Bis(4-(2-ethylhexyloxy)phenyl)(phenyl)-methyl)methacrylamide was synthesized and polymerized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The chain-transfer agent (4-cyano-4-(phenylcarbonothioylthio) pentanoic acid (CPADB)), combined with a chiral additive, and a radical initiator yielded polymers with dispersities between 1.2 and 1.4. At low concentrations, the polymers are soluble in hexanes and chloroform while at higher concentrations they swell in these solvents. Characterization of the polymers by wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) revealed an interplanar distance of 19.0 Å. The WAXS data combined with polarized optical microscopy support a lamellar crystallization and lyotropic liquid crystalline behavior in hexanes and chloroform. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

PubMed | The Interdisciplinary Center, New York UniversityNew York, New York University and Zhejiang University
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in human neuroscience | Year: 2016

Brain activity can follow the rhythms of dynamic sensory stimuli, such as speech and music, a phenomenon called neural entrainment. It has been hypothesized that low-frequency neural entrainment in the neural delta and theta bands provides a potential mechanism to represent and integrate temporal information. Low-frequency neural entrainment is often studied using periodically changing stimuli and is analyzed in the frequency domain using the Fourier analysis. The Fourier analysis decomposes a periodic signal into harmonically related sinusoids. However, it is not intuitive how these harmonically related components are related to the response waveform. Here, we explain the interpretation of response harmonics, with a special focus on very low-frequency neural entrainment near 1 Hz. It is illustrated why neural responses repeating at f Hz do not necessarily generate any neural response at f Hz in the Fourier spectrum. A strong neural response at f Hz indicates that the time scales of the neural response waveform within each cycle match the time scales of the stimulus rhythm. Therefore, neural entrainment at very low frequency implies not only that the neural response repeats at f Hz but also that each period of the neural response is a slow wave matching the time scale of a f Hz sinusoid.

PubMed | New York UniversityNew York and New York University
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in psychology | Year: 2016

Results from neurophysiological experiments suggest that face recognition engages a sensitive mechanism that is reflected in increased amplitude and decreased latency of the MEG M170 response compared to non-face visual targets. Furthermore, whereas recognition of objects (e.g., houses) has been argued to be based on individual features (e.g., door, window), face recognition may depend more on holistic information. Here we analyzed priming effects of component and holistic primes on 20 participants early MEG responses to two-tone (Mooney) images to determine whether face recognition in this context engages featural or configural processing. Although visually underspecified, the Mooney images in this study elicited M170 responses that replicate the typical face vs. house effect. However, we found a distinction between holistic vs. component primes that modulated this effect dependent upon compatibility (match) between the prime and target. The facilitatory effect of holistic faces and houses for Mooney faces and houses, respectively, suggests that both Mooney face and house recognition-both low spatial frequency stimuli-are based on holistic information.

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