New York University is a private, nonsectarian American research university based in New York City. NYU's main campus is located at Greenwich Village in Lower Manhattan. Founded in 1831, NYU is one of the largest private nonprofit institutions of American higher education.NYU was elected to the Association of American Universities in 1950. NYU counts 35 Nobel Prize winners, three Abel Prize winners, 10 National Medal of Science recipients, 16 Pulitzer Prize winners, over 30 Academy Award winners, four Putnam Competition winners, Russ Prize, Gordon Prize, and Draper Prize winners, Turing Award winners, and Emmy, Grammy, and Tony Award winners among its faculty and alumni. NYU also has MacArthur and Guggenheim Fellowship holders as well as National Academy of science and National Academy of Engineering members among its past and present graduates and faculty.NYU is organized into more than 20 schools, colleges, and institutes, located in six centers throughout Manhattan and Downtown Brooklyn, as well as more than a dozen other sites across the world, with plans for further expansion. According to the Institute of International Education, NYU sends more students to study abroad than any other US college or university, and the College Board reports more online searches by international students for "NYU" than for any other university. Wikipedia.
New York University | Date: 2017-09-27
There is set forth herein in one embodiment, a structure including a metallic grating having a grating pattern, the metallic grating including a critical dimension. The metallic grating can output a spectral profile when exposed to electromagnetic radiation, the spectral profile having a feature. The grating pattern can be configured so that a change of the critical dimension produces a shift in a value of the feature of the spectral profile. A method can include propagating input electromagnetic radiation onto a metallic grating having a two dimensional periodic grating pattern and measuring a critical dimension of the metallic grating using output electromagnetic radiation from the metallic grating.
New York University | Date: 2017-09-20
Systems and methods for uniquely identifying fluid-phase products by endowing them with fingerprints composed of dispersed colloidal particles, and by reading out those fingerprints on demand using Total Holographic Characterization. A library of chemically inert colloidal particles is developed that can be dispersed into soft materials, the stoichiometry of the mixture encoding user-specified information, including information about the host material. Encoded information then can be recovered by high-speed analysis of holographic microscopy images of the dispersed particles. Specifically, holograms of individual colloidal spheres are analyzed with predictions of the theory of light scattering to measure each spheres radius and refractive index, thereby building up the distribution of particle properties one particle at a time. A complete analysis of a colloidal fingerprint requires several thousand single-particle holograms and can be completed in ten minutes.
Sacktor T.C.,New York University
Nature Reviews Neuroscience | Year: 2011
Most of the molecular mechanisms contributing to long-term memory have been found to consolidate information within a brief time window after learning, but not to maintain information during memory storage. However, with the discovery that synaptic long-term potentiation is maintained by the persistently active protein kinase, protein kinase M ¶ (PKM ¶), a possible mechanism of memory storage has been identified. Recent research shows how PKM ¶ might perpetuate information both at synapses and during long-term memory. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Wisniewski T.,New York University |
Goni F.,New York University
Neuron | Year: 2015
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent form of dementia worldwide and is an emerging global epidemic. It is characterized by an imbalance between production and clearance of amyloid β (Aβ) and tau proteins. Oligomeric forms of Aβ and tau are believed to be the most toxic. Dramatic results from AD animal models showed great promise for active and passive immune therapies targeting Aβ. However, there is very limited evidence in human studies of the clinical benefits from these approaches. Immunotherapies targeting only tau pathology have had some success but are limited so far to mouse models. The majority of current methods is based on immunological targeting of a self-protein; hence, benefits need to be balanced against risks of stimulating excessive autoimmune toxic inflammation. For greater efficacy the next generation of vaccines needs to focus more on concurrently targeting all the intermediate toxic conformers of oligomeric Aβ and tau species. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent form of dementia globally. Currently AD has no effective treatment. Immunotherapeutic approaches have shown great benefit in animal models but not in clinical trials. Wisniewski and Goñi review these results and suggest possible future directions for more effective vaccines. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.
Buzsaki G.,New York University
Hippocampus | Year: 2015
Sharp wave ripples (SPW-Rs) represent the most synchronous population pattern in the mammalian brain. Their excitatory output affects a wide area of the cortex and several subcortical nuclei. SPW-Rs occur during "off-line" states of the brain, associated with consummatory behaviors and non-REM sleep, and are influenced by numerous neurotransmitters and neuromodulators. They arise from the excitatory recurrent system of the CA3 region and the SPW-induced excitation brings about a fast network oscillation (ripple) in CA1. The spike content of SPW-Rs is temporally and spatially coordinated by a consortium of interneurons to replay fragments of waking neuronal sequences in a compressed format. SPW-Rs assist in transferring this compressed hippocampal representation to distributed circuits to support memory consolidation; selective disruption of SPW-Rs interferes with memory. Recently acquired and pre-existing information are combined during SPW-R replay to influence decisions, plan actions and, potentially, allow for creative thoughts. In addition to the widely studied contribution to memory, SPW-Rs may also affect endocrine function via activation of hypothalamic circuits. Alteration of the physiological mechanisms supporting SPW-Rs leads to their pathological conversion, "p-ripples," which are a marker of epileptogenic tissue and can be observed in rodent models of schizophrenia and Alzheimer's Disease. Mechanisms for SPW-R genesis and function are discussed in this review. © 2015 The Authors Hippocampus Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Froemke R.C.,New York University
Annual Review of Neuroscience | Year: 2015
Synapses are highly plastic and are modified by changes in patterns of neural activity or sensory experience. Plasticity of cortical excitatory synapses is thought to be important for learning and memory, leading to alterations in sensory representations and cognitive maps. However, these changes must be coordinated across other synapses within local circuits to preserve neural coding schemes and the organization of excitatory and inhibitory inputs, i.e., excitatory-inhibitory balance. Recent studies indicate that inhibitory synapses are also plastic and are controlled directly by a large number of neuromodulators, particularly during episodes of learning. Many modulators transiently alter excitatory-inhibitory balance by decreasing inhibition, and thus disinhibition has emerged as a major mechanism by which neuromodulation might enable long-term synaptic modifications naturally. This review examines the relationships between neuromodulation and synaptic plasticity, focusing on the induction of long-term changes that collectively enhance cortical excitatory-inhibitory balance for improving perception and behavior. © 2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
Block N.,New York University
Trends in Cognitive Sciences | Year: 2011
One of the most important issues concerning the foundations of conscious perception centers on the question of whether perceptual consciousness is rich or sparse. The overflow argument uses a form of 'iconic memory' to argue that perceptual consciousness is richer (i.e., has a higher capacity) than cognitive access: when observing a complex scene we are conscious of more than we can report or think about. Recently, the overflow argument has been challenged both empirically and conceptually. This paper reviews the controversy, arguing that proponents of sparse perception are committed to the postulation of (i) a peculiar kind of generic conscious representation that has no independent rationale and (ii) an unmotivated form of unconscious representation that in some cases conflicts with what we know about unconscious representation. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
LeDoux J.,New York University
Neuron | Year: 2012
I propose a reconceptualization of key phenomena important in the study of emotion-those phenomena that reflect functions and circuits related to survival, and that are shared by humans and other animals. The approach shifts the focus from questions about whether emotions that humans consciously feel are also present in other animals, and toward questions about the extent to which circuits and corresponding functions that are present in other animals (survival circuits and functions) are also present in humans. Survival circuit functions are not causally related to emotional feelings but obviously contribute to these, at least indirectly. The survival circuit concept integrates ideas about emotion, motivation, reinforcement, and arousal in the effort to understand how organisms survive and thrive by detecting and responding to challenges and opportunities in daily life. In this Perspective, Joe LeDoux suggests research on emotion should be shifted away from assessing human-type emotion in other animals and towards questions about the extent to which circuits and functions related to survival in other animals are also present in humans. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.
Gabaix X.,New York University
Econometrica | Year: 2011
This paper proposes that idiosyncratic firm-level shocks can explain an important part of aggregate movements and provide a microfoundation for aggregate shocks. Existing research has focused on using aggregate shocks to explain business cycles, arguing that individual firm shocks average out in the aggregate. I show that this argument breaks down if the distribution of firm sizes is fat-tailed, as documented empirically. The idiosyncratic movements of the largest 100 firms in the United States appear to explain about one-third of variations in output growth. This "granular" hypothesis suggests new directions for macroeconomic research, in particular that macroeconomic questions can be clarified by looking at the behavior of large firms. This paper's ideas and analytical results may also be useful for thinking about the fluctuations of other economic aggregates, such as exports or the trade balance. © 2011 The Econometric Society.
Seeman N.C.,New York University
Annual Review of Biochemistry | Year: 2010
The combination of synthetic stable branched DNA and sticky-ended cohesion has led to the development of structural DNA nanotechnology over the past 30 years. The basis of this enterprise is that it is possible to construct novel DNA-based materials by combining these features in a self-assembly protocol. Thus, simple branched molecules lead directly to the construction of polyhedrons, whose edges consist of double helical DNA and whose vertices correspond to the branch points. Stiffer branched motifs can be used to produce self-assembled two-dimensional and three-dimensional periodic lattices of DNA (crystals). DNA has also been used to make a variety of nanomechanical devices, including molecules that change their shapes and molecules that can walk along a DNA sidewalk. Devices have been incorporated into two-dimensional DNA arrangements; sequence-dependent devices are driven by increases in nucleotide pairing at each step in their machine cycles. © 2010 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.