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Rodriguez-Seijas C.,State University of New York at Stony Brook | Arfer K.B.,University of California at Los Angeles | Thompson R.G.,Columbia University | Hasin D.S.,Columbia University | And 2 more authors.
Drug and Alcohol Dependence | Year: 2017

Background Substance use before and during sexual activity is associated with many negative health outcomes. Estimates suggest that at least 4.3 million American adults annually engage in regular sex-related alcohol consumption, indicating that the intersection of substance use and sexual behavior is of public health concern. However, it is likely that when considering broader sex-related substance use, estimates would be notably higher. While substance use disorders and antisocial personality disorder have been associated with sex-related alcohol consumption, no study has investigated how regular sex-related substance use is associated with the broader transdiagnostic externalizing spectrum. Further, no studies have assessed whether or not sexual risk-taking behaviors can be integrated into the externalizing spectrum. Methods In a large internet sample (N = 936), we used confirmatory factor analysis, item response theory, and logistic regression to link sex-related alcohol and drug use to an externalizing latent variable; identified psychometric characteristics of these behaviors; and determined the extent to which one's externalizing level was associated with changes in odds of regular sex-related substance use. We then replicated these findings in a nationally representative sample (N = 34,653). Results Results highlighted the close association between sex-related substance use and externalizing, with externalizing increases being associated with significantly increased odds of regular sex-related substance use. Conclusions These findings bear notable implications for conceptualization and treatment of sex-related substance use. Transdiagnostic intervention can be an efficient means of addressing this problematic behavior as well as other comorbid presentations. Results expand the current conceptualization of the externalizing spectrum. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Choi J.,The Institute of Living at Hartford Hospital | Wang Y.,Columbia University | Wang Y.,Columbia University | Wang Y.,New York State Psychiatric InstituteNY | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Psychiatric Research | Year: 2017

Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) remains the most effective treatment for severe depression, some patients report persistent memory problems following ECT that impact their quality of life and their willingness to consent to further ECT. While cognitive training has been shown to improve memory performance in various conditions, this approach has never been applied to help patients regain their memory after ECT. In a double-blind study, we tested the efficacy of a new cognitive training program called Memory Training for ECT (Mem-ECT), specifically designed to target anterograde and retrograde memory that can be compromised following ECT. Fifty-nine patients with treatment-resistant depression scheduled to undergo ultra-brief right unilateral ECT were randomly assigned to either(a) Mem-ECT, (b) active control comprised of nonspecific mental stimulation, or (c) treatment as usual. Participants were evaluated within one week prior to the start of ECT and then again within 2 weeks following the last ECT session. All three groups improved in global function, quality of life, depression, and self-reported memory abilities without significant group differences. While there was a decline in verbal delayed recall and mental status, there was no decline in general retrograde memory or autobiographical memory in any of the groups, with no significant memory or clinical benefit for the Mem-ECT or active control conditions compared to treatment as usual. While we report negative findings, these results continue to promote the much needed discussion on developing effective strategies to minimize the adverse memory side effects of ECT, in hopes it will make ECT a better and more easily tolerated treatment for patients with severe depression who need this therapeutic option. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Qadeer M.I.,University of Punjab | Amar A.,University of Health Sciences, Lahore | Mann J.J.,New York State Psychiatric InstituteNY | Mann J.J.,Columbia University | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2017

Genetic factors contribute to antisocial and criminal behavior. Dopamine transporter DAT-1 (SLC6A3) and DRD2 gene for the dopamine-2 receptor are dopaminergic system genes that regulate dopamine reuptake and signaling, and may be part of the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders including antisocial behaviors and traits. No previous studies have analyzed DAT-1 and DRD2 polymorphisms in convicted murderers, particularly from Indian subcontinent. In this study we investigated the association of 40 bp VNTR polymorphism of DAT-1 and Taq1 variant of DRD2 gene (rs1800479) with criminal behavior and self-reported aggression in 729 subjects, including 370 men in Pakistani prisons convicted of first degree murder(s) and 359 control men without any history of violence or criminal tendency. The 9R allele of DAT-1 VNTR polymorphism was more prevalent in convicted murderers compared with control samples, for either one or two risk alleles (OR = 1.49 and 3.99 respectively, P = 0.003). This potential association of DAT-1 9R allele polymorphism with murderer phenotype was confirmed assuming different genetic models of inheritance. However, no genetic association was found for DRD2 Taq1 polymorphism. In addition, a combined haplotype (9R-A2) of DAT-1 and DRD2 genes was associated with this murderer phenotype. Further, 9R allele of DAT-1 was also associated with response to verbal abuse and parental marital complications, but not with other measures pertinent to self-reported aggression. These results suggest that 9R allele, which may influence levels of intra-synaptic dopamine in the brain, may contribute to criminal tendency in this sample of violent murderers of Pakistani origin. Future studies are needed to replicate this finding in other populations of murderers and see if this finding extends to other forms of violence and lesser degrees of aggression. © 2017 This is an open access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.

McLean C.P.,University of Pennsylvania | Zandberg L.J.,University of Pennsylvania | Van Meter P.E.,New York State Psychiatric InstituteNY | Carpenter J.K.,University of Pennsylvania | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Psychiatry | Year: 2015

Objective: Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) are a first-line treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Yet, most patients with OCD who are taking SRIs do not show excellent response. Recent studies show that augmenting SRIs with risperidone benefits a minority of patients. We evaluated the effectiveness of exposure and response prevention (EX/RP) among nonresponders to SRI augmentation with 8 weeks of risperidone or placebo. Method: The study was conducted from January 2007 to August 2012. Nonresponders to SRI augmentation with risperidone or pill placebo (N = 32) in a randomized controlled trial for adults meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for OCD were offered up to 17 twice-weekly EX/RP sessions. Independent evaluators, blind to treatment, evaluated patients at crossover baseline (week 8), midway through crossover treatment (week 12), post-EX/RP treatment (week 16), and follow-up (weeks 20, 24, 28, and 32). The primary outcome was OCD severity, measured with the Yale- Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS). Secondary outcomes were depression, quality of life, insight, and social functioning. Results: Between crossover baseline and follow-up, nonresponders to SRI augmentation with risperidone or placebo who received EX/RP showed significant reductions in OCD symptoms and depression, as well as significant increases in insight, quality of life, and social functioning (all P < .001). Conclusions: Exposure and response prevention is an effective treatment for patients who have failed to respond to SRI augmentation with risperidone or placebo. This study adds to the body of evidence supporting the use of EX/RP with patients who continue to report clinically significant OCD symptoms after multiple pharmacologic trials. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

Smalls-Mantey A.,Columbia University | Steinglass J.,New York State Psychiatric InstituteNY | Steinglass J.,Columbia University | Primack M.,New York State Psychiatric InstituteNY | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Eating Disorders | Year: 2015

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is typically associated with altered thyroid function tests, notably a low total and free T3, and lower, but within normal range, free T4 and TSH. A 16-year-old girl with a four-year history of AN presented with elevated TSH that fluctuated with changes in weight. TSH was within normal limits (1.7-3.64 mIU/L) following periods of weight loss and elevated with weight gain (5.9-21.66 mIU/L). Antithyroperoxidase antibodies were markedly elevated, suggesting chronic Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Of note, the elevated TSH that would be expected in Hashimoto's thyroiditis was blunted by weight loss associated with AN. Physicians should be aware that AN may contribute to masking thyroid abnormalities in Hashimoto's thyroiditis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Labys C.A.,University of KwaZulu - Natal | Susser E.,Columbia University | Susser E.,New York State Psychiatric InstituteNY | Burns J.K.,University of Exeter
International Journal of Mental Health Systems | Year: 2016

Background: Growing interest in strategies regarding early intervention for psychosis has led to a parallel interest in understanding help-seeking behavior, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Nevertheless, few LMIC studies have examined individuals with psychosis in non-urban, non-hospital settings. Using the perspective of formal and informal community service providers, we aimed to uncover descriptions of people with psychosis in a rural South African community and illuminate the potential complexities of their help-seeking journeys. Methods: We conducted a qualitative study of 40 key informant interviews and seven focus groups with stakeholders (traditional leaders, traditional healers, religious leaders, health care nurses, heads of non-governmental organizations, schoolteachers, community caregivers) in a rural Zulu community (Vulindlela). Thematic analysis of the data was performed using the inductive analysis approach. Results: Interviewees discussed 32 individuals with probable psychosis in their community and provided rich descriptions of their symptoms. A complex picture of help-seeking behavior, primarily involving informal mental health service providers, emerged. Over half of the reported cases had no contact with formal health services in the course of their help-seeking journey; while more than two-thirds never attended a hospital and only 1 in 8 accessed a psychiatric hospital. Conclusions: Our results highlight the important role of informal care providers in LMICs as well as the need for more research on mental illness and local providers in non-hospital contexts. Community stakeholders can contribute to a fuller understanding of these issues, thereby assisting in the creation of appropriate and effective mental health interventions for rural South African communities like Vulindlela. © 2016 The Author(s).

Olfson M.,Columbia University | Olfson M.,New York State Psychiatric InstituteNY | King M.,Yale University | Schoenbaum M.,National Institute of Mental Health
JAMA Psychiatry | Year: 2015

IMPORTANCE Despite concerns about rising treatment of young people with antipsychotic medications, little is known about trends and patterns of their use in the United States. OBJECTIVE To describe antipsychotic prescription patterns among young people in the United States, focusing on age and sex. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A retrospective descriptive analysis of antipsychotic prescriptions among patients aged 1 to 24 years was performed with data from calendar years 2006 (n = 765 829), 2008 (n = 858 216), and 2010 (n = 851 874), including a subset from calendar year 2009 with service claims data (n = 53 896). Data were retrieved from the IMS LifeLink LRx Longitudinal Prescription database, which includes approximately 60%of all retail pharmacies in the United States. Denominators were adjusted to generalize estimates to the US population. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The percentage of young people filling 1 or more antipsychotic prescriptions during the study year by sex and age group (younger children, 1-6 years; older children, 7-12 years; adolescents, 13-18 years; and young adults, 19-24 years) was calculated. Among young people with antipsychotic use, percentages with specific clinical psychiatric diagnoses and 1 or more antipsychotic prescriptions from a psychiatrist and from a child and adolescent psychiatrist were also determined. RESULTS The percentages of young people using antipsychotics in 2006 and 2010, respectively, were 0.14%and 0.11% for younger children, 0.85%and 0.80% for older children, 1.10% and 1.19% for adolescents, and 0.69% and 0.84%for young adults. In 2010, males were more likely than females to use antipsychotics, especially during childhood and adolescence: 0.16%vs 0.06%for younger children, 1.20%vs 0.44%for older children, 1.42% vs 0.95%for adolescents, and 0.88%vs 0.81% for young adults. Among young people treated with antipsychotics in 2010, receiving a prescription from a psychiatrist was less common among younger children (57.9%) than among other age groups (range, 70.4%-77.9%). Approximately 29.3%of younger children treated with antipsychotics in 2010 received 1 or more antipsychotic prescriptions from a child and adolescent psychiatrist. Among young people with claims for mental disorders in 2009 who were treated with antipsychotics, the most common diagnoses were attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in younger children (52.5%), older children (60.1%), and adolescents (34.9%) and depression in young adults (34.5%). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Antipsychotic use increased from 2006 to 2010 for adolescents and young adults but not for children aged 12 years or younger. Peak antipsychotic use in adolescence, especially among boys, and clinical diagnosis patterns are consistent with management of developmentally limited impulsive and aggressive behaviors rather than psychotic symptoms. Copyright 2015 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.

Cabassa L.J.,Columbia University | Cabassa L.J.,New York State Psychiatric InstituteNY | Gomes A.P.,Columbia University | Lewis-Fernandez R.,New York State Psychiatric InstituteNY
Medical Care Research and Review | Year: 2015

Health care manager interventions can improve the physical health of people with serious mental illness (SMI). In this study, we used concepts from the theory of diffusion of innovations, the consolidated framework for implementation research and a taxonomy of implementation strategies to examine stakeholders' recommendations for implementing a health care manager intervention in public mental health clinics serving Hispanics with SMI. A purposive sample of 20 stakeholders was recruited from mental health agencies, primary care clinics, and consumer advocacy organizations. We presented participants a vignette describing a health care manager intervention and used semistructured qualitative interviews to examine their views and recommendations for implementing this program. Interviews were recorded, professionally transcribed, and content analyzed. We found that a blend of implementation strategies that demonstrates local relative advantage, addresses cost concerns, and enhances compatibility to organizations and the client population is critical for moving health care manager interventions into practice. © The Author(s) 2014.

Simpson H.B.,Columbia University | Simpson H.B.,New York State Psychiatric InstituteNY | Reddy Y.C.J.,National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences
Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria | Year: 2014

Since the approval of the ICD-10 by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1990, global research on obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has expanded dramatically. This article evaluates what changes may be needed to enhance the scientific validity, clinical utility, and global applicability of OCD diagnostic guidelines in preparation for ICD-11. Existing diagnostic guidelines for OCD were compared. Key issues pertaining to clinical description, differential diagnosis, and specifiers were identified and critically reviewed on the basis of the current literature. Specific modifications to ICD guidelines are recommended, including: clarifying the definition of obsessions (i.e., that obsessions can be thoughts, images, or impulses/urges) and compulsions (i.e., clarifying that these can be behaviors or mental acts and not calling these ‘‘stereotyped’’); stating that compulsions are often associated with obsessions; and removing the ICD-10 duration requirement of at least 2 weeks. In addition, a diagnosis of OCD should no longer be excluded if comorbid with Tourette syndrome, schizophrenia, or depressive disorders. Moreover, the ICD-10 specifiers (i.e., predominantly obsessional thoughts, compulsive acts, or mixed) should be replaced with a specifier for insight. Based on new research, modifications to the ICD-10 diagnostic guidelines for OCD are recommended for ICD-11. © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Psiquiatria.

Hasin D.S.,Columbia University | Hasin D.S.,New York State Psychiatric InstituteNY | Saha T.D.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Kerridge B.T.,Columbia University | And 9 more authors.
JAMA Psychiatry | Year: 2015

IMPORTANCE Laws and attitudes toward marijuana in the United States are becoming more permissive but little is known about whether the prevalence rates of marijuana use and marijuana use disorders have changed in the 21st century. OBJECTIVE To present nationally representative information on the past-year prevalence rates of marijuana use, marijuana use disorder, and marijuana use disorder among marijuana users in the US adult general population and whether this has changed between 2001-2002 and 2012-2013. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Face-to-face interviews conducted in surveys of 2 nationally representative samples of US adults: the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (data collected April 2001-April 2002; N = 43 093) and the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (data collected April 2012-June 2013; N = 36 309). Data were analyzed March through May 2015. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Past-year marijuana use and DSM-IV marijuana use disorder (abuse or dependence). RESULTS The past-year prevalence of marijuana use was 4.1% (SE, 0.15) in 2001-2002 and 9.5% (SE, 0.27) in 2012-2013, a significant increase (P < .05). Significant increases were also found across demographic subgroups (sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, income, urban/rural, and region). The past-year prevalence of DSM-IV marijuana use disorder was 1.5% (0.08) in 2001-2002 and 2.9% (SE, 0.13) in 2012-2013 (P < .05). With few exceptions, increases in the prevalence of marijuana use disorder between 2001-2002 and 2012-2013 were also statistically significant (P < .05) across demographic subgroups. However, the prevalence of marijuana use disorder among marijuana users decreased significantly from 2001-2002 (35.6%; SE, 1.37) to 2012-2013 (30.6%; SE, 1.04). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The prevalence of marijuana use more than doubled between 2001-2002 and 2012-2013, and there was a large increase in marijuana use disorders during that time. While not all marijuana users experience problems, nearly 3 of 10 marijuana users manifested a marijuana use disorder in 2012-2013. Because the risk for marijuana use disorder did not increase among users, the increase in prevalence of marijuana use disorder is owing to an increase in prevalence of users in the US adult population. Given changing laws and attitudes toward marijuana, a balanced presentation of the likelihood of adverse consequences of marijuana use to policy makers, professionals, and the public is needed. Copyright © 2015 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.

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