New York State Psychiatric Institute New York

New York City, NY, United States

New York State Psychiatric Institute New York

New York City, NY, United States
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Gould M.S.,Columbia University | Lake A.M.,New York State Psychiatric Institute New York | Galfalvy H.,Columbia University | Kleinman M.,New York State Psychiatric Institute New York | And 3 more authors.
Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior | Year: 2017

Continuity of care for suicidal individuals engaged with a variety of health and mental health care systems has become a national priority, and crisis hotlines are increasingly playing a part in the risk management and continuum of care for these individuals. The current study evaluated a national initiative to have crisis centers in the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline network provide follow-up care to suicidal callers. Data were obtained from 550 callers followed by 41 crisis counselors from 6 centers. Two main data sources provided the information for the current study: a self-report counselor questionnaire on the follow-up activities completed on each clinical follow-up call and a telephone interview with follow-up clients, providing data on their perceptions of the follow-up intervention's effectiveness. The majority of interviewed follow-up clients reported that the intervention stopped them from killing themselves (79.6%) and kept them safe (90.6%). Counselor activities, such as discussing distractors, social contacts to call for help, and reasons for dying, and individual factors, such as baseline suicide risk, were associated with callers' perceptions of the impact of the intervention on their suicide risk. Our findings provide evidence that follow-up calls to suicidal individuals can reduce the perceived risk of future suicidal behavior. © 2017 The American Association of Suicidology.

Kleinhaus K.,New York University | Steinfeld S.,New York State Psychiatric Institute New York | Steinfeld S.,New York State Psychiatric Institute | Balaban J.,New York State Psychiatric Institute | And 9 more authors.
Developmental Psychobiology | Year: 2010

Severe psychological stress in the first trimester of pregnancy increases the risk of schizophrenia in the offspring. To begin to investigate the role of glucocorticoid receptors in this association, we determined the effects of the glucocorticoid dexamethasone (2 mg/kg), administered to pregnant rats on gestation days 6-8, on maternal behaviors and schizophrenia-relevant behaviors in the offspring. Dams receiving dexamethasone exhibited increased milk ejection bouts during nursing. Offspring of dexamethasone-treated dams (DEX) showed decreased juvenile social play and a blunted acoustic startle reflex in adolescence and adulthood, effects that were predicted by frequency of milk ejections in the dams. DEX offspring also showed increased prepulse inhibition of startle and reduced amphetamine-induced motor activity, effects not correlated with maternal behavior. It is postulated that over-stimulation of receptors targeted by glucocorticoids in the placenta or other maternal tissues during early gestation can lead to psychomotor and social behavioral deficits in the offspring. Moreover, some of these deficits may be mediated by alterations in postnatal maternal behavior and physiology produced by early gestational exposure to excess glucocorticoids. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

PubMed | Comprehensive NeuroScience, University of Miami, New York University, Baylor College of Medicine and 5 more.
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience | Year: 2014

Children exposed to early life stress (ELS) exhibit enlarged amygdala volume in comparison to controls. The primary goal of this study was to examine amygdala volumes in bonnet macaques subjected to maternal variable foraging demand (VFD) rearing, a well-established model of ELS. Preliminary analyses examined the interaction of ELS and the serotonin transporter gene on amygdala volume. Secondary analyses were conducted to examine the association between amygdala volume and other stress-related variables previously found to distinguish VFD and non-VFD reared animals.Twelve VFD-reared and nine normally reared monkeys completed MRI scans on a 3T system (mean age = 5.2 years).Left amygdala volume was larger in VFD vs. control macaques. Larger amygdala volume was associated with: high cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of corticotropin releasing-factor (CRF) determined when the animals were in adolescence (mean age = 2.7 years); reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) of the anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC) during young adulthood (mean age = 5.2 years) and timid anxiety-like responses to an intruder during full adulthood (mean age = 8.4 years). Right amygdala volume varied inversely with left hippocampal neurogenesis assessed in late adulthood (mean age = 8.7 years). Exploratory analyses also showed a gene-by-environment effect, with VFD-reared macaques with a single short allele of the serotonin transporter gene exhibiting larger amygdala volume compared to VFD-reared subjects with only the long allele and normally reared controls.These data suggest that the left amygdala exhibits hypertrophy after ELS, particularly in association with the serotonin transporter gene, and that amygdala volume variation occurs in concert with other key stress-related behavioral and neurobiological parameters observed across the lifecycle. Future research is required to understand the mechanisms underlying these diverse and persistent changes associated with ELS and amygdala volume.

Lipsitz J.D.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Lipsitz J.D.,Columbia University | Markowitz J.C.,Columbia University | Markowitz J.C.,New York State Psychiatric Institute New York
Clinical Psychology Review | Year: 2013

Although interpersonal therapy (IPT) has demonstrated efficacy for mood and other disorders, little is known about how IPT works. We present interpersonal change mechanisms that we hypothesize account for symptom change in IPT. Integrating relational theory and insights based on research findings regarding stress, social support, and illness, IPT highlights contextual factors thought to precipitate and maintain psychiatric disorders. It frames therapy around a central interpersonal problem in the patient's life, a current crisis or relational predicament that is disrupting social support and increasing interpersonal stress. By mobilizing and working collaboratively with the patient to resolve this problem, IPT seeks to activate several interpersonal change mechanisms. These include: 1) enhancing social support, 2) decreasing interpersonal stress, 3) facilitating emotional processing, and 4) improving interpersonal skills. We hope that articulating these mechanisms will help therapists to formulate cases and better maintain focus within an IPT framework. Here we propose interpersonal mechanisms that might explain how IPT's interpersonal focus leads to symptom change. Future work needs to specify and test candidate mediators in clinical trials. We anticipate that pursuing this more systematic strategy will lead to important refinements and improvements in IPT and enhance its application in a range of clinical populations. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Lindgren M.,Gothenburg University | Alex C.,Gothenburg University | Shapiro P.A.,Columbia University | Mckinley P.S.,Columbia University | And 5 more authors.
Psychophysiology | Year: 2013

Exercise has widely documented cardioprotective effects, but the mechanisms behind these effects are still poorly understood. Here, we test the hypothesis that aerobic training lowers cardiovascular sympathetic responses to and speeds recovery from challenge. We conducted a randomized, controlled trial contrasting aerobic versus strength training on indices of cardiac (pre-ejection period, PEP) and vascular (low-frequency blood pressure variability, LF-BPV) sympathetic responses to and recovery from psychological and orthostatic challenge in 149 young, healthy, sedentary adults. Aerobic and strength training did not alter PEP or LF-BPV reactivity to or recovery from challenge. These findings, from a large randomized, controlled trial using an intent-to-treat design, show that moderate aerobic exercise training has no effect on PEP and LF-BPV reactivity to or recovery from psychological or orthostatic challenge. In healthy young adults, the cardioprotective effects of exercise training are unlikely to be mediated by changes in sympathetic activity. © 2013 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

PubMed | New York State Psychiatric Institute New York, York College and University of Puerto Rico at San Juan
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience | Year: 2016

Studies of the mesocorticolimbic reward system (MCLS) and its relationship with impulsivity and substance use disorders (SUD) have largely focused on individuals from non-minority backgrounds. This represents a significant gap in the literature particularly for minority populations who are disproportionately affected by the consequences of SUD. Using resting-state functional MRI (fMRI), we examined the coherence of neural activity, or functional connectivity, within the brains MCLS in 28 young adult Puerto Ricans (ages 25-27) who were part of a population-based cohort study. Half of the sample lived in San Juan, Puerto Rico; the other half lived in the South Bronx, New York. At each of the two sites, half of the sample had a history of a SUD. Relative to those without SUD, individuals with SUD had decreased connectivity between the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and several regions within the MCLS. This finding was true irrespective of study site (i.e., San Juan or South Bronx). Reduced connectivity within the MCLS was also associated with higher self-reported levels of impulsivity. Path analysis suggested a potential mechanism linking impulsivity, the MCLS, and SUD: impulsivity, potentially by chronically promoting reward seeking behaviors, may contribute to decreased MCLS connectivity, which in turn, may confer vulnerability for SUD. Expanding upon prior studies suggesting that alterations within the MCLS underlie SUD, our findings suggest that such alterations are also related to impulsivity and are present in a high-risk young minority population.

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