The New York State Department of Health is the department of the New York state government responsible for public health. It is headed by the Health Commissioner, a position held January 24, 2011 through May 4, 2014 by Nirav R. Shah, M.D., M.P.H.. Since May 4, 2014, Howard A. Zucker, M.D., J.D. has been the acting commissioner. Wikipedia.
News Article | August 1, 2017
SYRACUSE, N.Y., Aug. 01, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Veterans face unique challenges when transitioning from military into civilian life, and research shows supporting their needs often requires coordination of multiple organizations, public and private, which further complement the traditional health care services and benefits provided by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). “Serving veterans is not the VA’s responsibility alone,” says Nick Armstrong, Ph.D., IVMF Senior Director of Research and Evaluation, and lead investigator. “Our nation’s support system for veterans is really a patchwork network of government, private and nonprofit programs and services—delivered at the ground-level, in communities across the country. These new projects have the potential to significantly alter and enhance how that system works.” The NYSHealth project (an award of over $215,000) will investigate state-level veteran services, needs, and leading practices of veteran affairs agencies across the United States and territories. The study will inform state-level policymakers and other public and private sector stakeholders on opportunities and to draw on new or innovative ways to deliver best-in-class programs and services to veterans and their families at the state and local level. At the same time, funding from the IBM Center for the Business of Government, will examine barriers and opportunities to develop an enterprise, government-wide approach to veterans’ policy and planning. Beyond the VA, multiple federal agencies, state and local governments, and the private and social sectors all provide services for veterans’, yet no national framework exists to devote resources to their most impactful use. Both studies build from work done nearly four years ago—by the IVMF—making the case for a government-wide national veterans’ strategy that helps align joint efforts across government, private, philanthropic, and non-profit organizations nationally. The work seeks to inform the Trump Administration, federal agency leadership, and other key public and private sectors stakeholders on how to achieve greater unity of effort in veterans’ policy and planning nationwide. Both research projects have the potential to drive a national dialogue of better coordination and continuous improvement in veteran services delivery across the public, private, and social sectors. The research will be conducted over the coming year. Results from these two projects will further extend the IVMF research and evaluation team’s broad global thought leadership efforts driving the community of veteran serving organizations committed to serving those who serve. For more information on this work and other IVMF projects and programs visit the IVMF website at ivmf.syracuse.edu. About the Institute for Veterans and Military Families at Syracuse University The Institute for Veterans and Military Families (IVMF) is the first interdisciplinary national institute in higher education focused on the social, economic, education, and policy issues impacting veterans and their families. Through its professional staff and experts, the IVMF delivers leading programs in career, vocational, and entrepreneurship education and training, while also conducting actionable research, policy analysis, and program evaluations. The IVMF also supports communities through collective impact efforts that enhance delivery and access to services and care. The Institute, supported by a distinguished advisory board, along with public and private partners, is committed to advancing the lives of those who have served in America’s armed forces and their families. For more information, visit ivmf.syracuse.edu and follow the IVMF on Facebook, Twitter and Instagram. About IBM Center for the Business of Government The IBM Center for The Business of Government connects research to practice, applying scholarship to real world issues and decisions for government. The Center stimulates research and facilitates discussion of new approaches to improving the effectiveness of government at the federal, state, local, and international levels. The Center’s publications focus on major management issues facing governments today, including the use of technology and social media, financial management, human capital, performance and results, risk management, innovation, collaboration, and transformation. Our intent is to spark creativity in addressing pressing public sector challenges—crafting new ways of improving government by identifying trends, ideas, and best practices in public management that can help government leaders respond more effectively to their mission and management priorities. Since its creation in 1998, the Center has awarded research stipends to public management researchers in the academic and non-profit communities that have resulted in nearly 350 reports - all of which are available on the Center’s website. About The New York State Health Foundation The New York State Health Foundation (NYSHealth) is a private, statewide foundation dedicated to improving the health of all New Yorkers. We strive to be focused and purposeful in our work; establish and adhere to clear goals and strategies; and measure our progress. We are committed to making grants, but also to making a difference beyond our dollars: informing health care policy and practice, spreading effective programs to improve the health system, serving as a convener of health leaders across the State, and providing technical assistance to our grantees and partners.
News Article | May 26, 2017
Urinary tract infections, chronic high blood pressure and bleeding or clotting disorders may increase the risk of pregnancy-associated stroke in women with preeclampsia, a high-blood pressure disorder unique to pregnancy, according to new research in the American Heart Association's journal Stroke. Women with preeclampsia are at higher risk of stroke during pregnancy and after delivery. But while preeclampsia affects 3 percent to 8 percent of all pregnancies, pregnancy-related stroke remain rare. In a study of women admitted to hospitals in New York State from 2003 through 2012, researchers identified 88,857 women with preeclampsia. Of that number, 197 had pregnancy-associated stroke. Compared with women who had preeclampsia but did not have a stroke, women who had preeclampsia and pregnancy-associated stroke were: "Preeclampsia is a very complex disorder that's not completely understood," said Eliza Miller, M.D., study lead author and vascular neurology fellow at New York-Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia University Medical Center in New York City. "Our study sought to discover if there are other risk factors or clues that may help identify the women with preeclampsia who are at the highest risk for pregnancy-related stroke. We were looking for risk factors that could be prevented or treated." Researchers noted a link with urinary tract infections was interesting "because those infections are not only treatable, but could be preventable," Miller said. Using billing data from the New York State Department of Health inpatient database, researchers compared women aged 12 to 55 years old with preeclampsia and pregnancy-associated stroke to a matched control group of women with preeclampsia who did not have strokes. Among the women with preeclampsia and stroke, most strokes occurred postpartum, after women had been discharged home after delivery. More than one in 10 of the preeclampsia-related strokes were fatal. The study's reliance on patients' billing data limited the level of detail researchers could analyze and restricted them from drawing definitive conclusions. But the associations were strong enough, Miller said, to help generate new ideas and directions for more research. "Preeclampsia is a very common disorder, and a lot of people are not aware of its association with stroke," Miller said. "Women with preeclampsia should take any neurological symptoms, such as severe headache, very seriously, especially during the postpartum period. This needs to be a major focus of future stroke research in women." The American Heart Association recommends home blood pressure monitoring for all people with high blood pressure.
News Article | May 25, 2017
DALLAS, May 25, 2017 -- Urinary tract infections, chronic high blood pressure and bleeding or clotting disorders may increase the risk of pregnancy-associated stroke in women with preeclampsia, a high-blood pressure disorder unique to pregnancy, according to new research in the American Heart Association's journal Stroke. Women with preeclampsia are at higher risk of stroke during pregnancy and after delivery. But while preeclampsia affects 3 percent to 8 percent of all pregnancies, pregnancy-related stroke remain rare. In a study of women admitted to hospitals in New York State from 2003 through 2012, researchers identified 88,857 women with preeclampsia. Of that number, 197 had pregnancy-associated stroke. Compared with women who had preeclampsia but did not have a stroke, women who had preeclampsia and pregnancy-associated stroke were: "Preeclampsia is a very complex disorder that's not completely understood," said Eliza Miller, M.D., study lead author and vascular neurology fellow at New York-Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia University Medical Center in New York City. "Our study sought to discover if there are other risk factors or clues that may help identify the women with preeclampsia who are at the highest risk for pregnancy-related stroke. We were looking for risk factors that could be prevented or treated." Researchers noted a link with urinary tract infections was interesting "because those infections are not only treatable, but could be preventable," Miller said. Using billing data from the New York State Department of Health inpatient database, researchers compared women aged 12 to 55 years old with preeclampsia and pregnancy-associated stroke to a matched control group of women with preeclampsia who did not have strokes. Among the women with preeclampsia and stroke, most strokes occurred postpartum, after women had been discharged home after delivery. More than one in 10 of the preeclampsia-related strokes were fatal. The study's reliance on patients' billing data limited the level of detail researchers could analyze and restricted them from drawing definitive conclusions. But the associations were strong enough, Miller said, to help generate new ideas and directions for more research. "Preeclampsia is a very common disorder, and a lot of people are not aware of its association with stroke," Miller said. "Women with preeclampsia should take any neurological symptoms, such as severe headache, very seriously, especially during the postpartum period. This needs to be a major focus of future stroke research in women." The American Heart Association recommends home blood pressure monitoring for all people with high blood pressure. Co-authors are Hajere Gatollari, M.P.H.; Gloria Too, M.D.; Amelia Boehme, Ph.D., M.S.P.H.; Lisa Leffert, M.D.; Randolph Marshall, M.D.; Mitchell Elkind, M.D., M.S.; and Joshua Willey, M.D., M.S. Author disclosures are on the manuscript. The National Institutes of Health National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke funded the study. Note: May is American Stroke Month and Preeclampsia Awareness Month. Statements and conclusions of study authors published in American Heart Association scientific journals are solely those of the study authors and do not necessarily reflect the association's policy or position. The association makes no representation or guarantee as to their accuracy or reliability. The association receives funding primarily from individuals; foundations and corporations (including pharmaceutical, device manufacturers and other companies) also make donations and fund specific association programs and events. The association has strict policies to prevent these relationships from influencing the science content. Revenues from pharmaceutical and device corporations and health insurance providers are available at http://www. . The American Heart Association is devoted to saving people from heart disease and stroke - the two leading causes of death in the world. We team with millions of volunteers to fund innovative research, fight for stronger public health policies, and provide lifesaving tools and information to prevent and treat these diseases. The Dallas-based association is the nation's oldest and largest voluntary organization dedicated to fighting heart disease and stroke. To learn more or to get involved, call 1-800-AHA-USA1, visit heart.org or call any of our offices around the country. Follow us on Facebook and Twitter.
News Article | May 11, 2017
NSF International, a global public health and safety organization that provides food safety and quality assurance services across all food supply chain sectors, announced the recipients of the 2017 NSF Food Safety Leadership Awards today at the 2017 Food Safety Summit in Rosemont, Illinois: 2017 NSF Food Safety Leadership Lifetime Achievement Awards: Jack J. Guzewich, MPH Consultant and Trainer in Foodborne Disease Epidemiology and Food Emergency Response NSF International’s Food Safety Leadership Awards recognize individuals and organizations for real and lasting improvements in food safety. Created in 2004, the awards encourage the development of educational programs, processes and technologies to advance food safety. Each year, an independent panel of food safety experts from academia, industry and the regulatory community reviews nominations from around the world to select the recipients. Nominations are evaluated on the basis of innovation, impact and contribution to the advancement of food safety. “These awards honor the recipients for their contributions to food safety and the protection of public health. The work of Jack Guzewich, David Theno and Lee-Ann Jaykus has contributed to important advances in food safety research, industry innovation and pathogen mitigation. Their leadership and enthusiasm in science-based research, collaboration and information sharing to help solve vital food safety issues embodies the spirit of NSF International’s Food Safety Leadership Awards,” said Kevan P. Lawlor, NSF International President and Chief Executive Officer. Lifetime Achievement Award: Jack J. Guzewich, MPH, Consultant and Trainer in Foodborne Disease Epidemiology and Food Emergency Response Over his 46-year career, Jack J. Guzewich has been a national leader in food safety regulation and the epidemiology of foodborne disease. He is a proponent of environmental assessment including root cause analysis to investigate the causes of foodborne disease outbreaks and food contamination events. Much of his career was spent on investigations to understand how food becomes contaminated with foodborne pathogens and the ecology of pathogens in various environments. Mr. Guzewich directed the New York State Department of Health’s food safety program for 17 years and created the Foodborne Disease Surveillance System (FBDS), an extensive database of reported foodborne disease outbreaks including their contributing factors. FBDS was one of the first systems of its kind and served as a precursor to today’s National Outbreak Reporting System. Mr. Guzewich guided the adoption of New York’s regulation to prohibit bare-hand contact with ready-to-eat foods and worked to include these provisions in the FDA Food Code. He was instrumental in documenting gastroenteritis and Salmonella enteritidis outbreaks associated with shellfish and shelled eggs, respectively, by identifying trends and developing interventions to prevent future outbreaks. As a result, control recommendations implemented by New York under his leadership led to national improvements as provided in the 2009 Egg Safety Final Rule. At the FDA’s Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Mr. Guzewich created and led the Center’s Emergency Coordination and Response program with a strong emphasis on prevention and control of foodborne disease. He developed the FDA procedures for investigating produce farms implicated in outbreaks or contamination events to identify the root causes of contamination, which required an environmental assessment versus a routine inspection. He worked very closely with the CDC’s Environmental Health Specialist Network to help develop the National Environmental Assessment Reporting System which is used by several states to help identify the root causes of foodborne disease outbreaks. He was also instrumental in developing the publication Procedures to Investigate Foodborne Illness and contributed to the first editions of Guidelines for Foodborne Disease Outbreak Response and Guidelines for Foodborne Disease Outbreak Response – Toolkit. “Jack Guzewich is the epitome of a food safety leader,” says Dale L. Morse, MD, Associate Director for Food Safety, Division of Foodborne, Waterborne and Environmental Diseases, CDC. “His career was built on hard work, innovative creation of foodborne illness surveillance networks and databases, application of these networks to identify causes and initiate long-term control recommendations, and educational pursuits to train the next generation of food safety leaders.” Lifetime Achievement Award: David M. Theno, Ph.D., CEO/CBIO, Gray Dog Partners, Inc. Throughout his 40-year career, Dr. David M. Theno’s work set new standards for food safety leadership and management in food production and in the foodservice industry. He has been instrumental in demonstrating how the scientific community and the meat/food industry can work together to solve food safety challenges. Dr. Theno installed the first Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) program in an animal protein production plant while at Foster Farms in the mid-1980s. His work in the early 1990s at Jack in the Box is widely credited with setting new standards for food safety leadership and management in all aspects of food production. After an Escherichia coli (E. coli) 0157:H7 infection of the chain’s burgers caused a foodborne illness outbreak in the Pacific Northwest, he developed the first comprehensive food safety management plan for a foodservice chain. He also implemented a finished ground beef testing protocol, a comprehensive supply chain auditing system and a “test and hold” protocol for ground beef that is now an industry standard. This management program resulted in a significant reduction of foodborne illness outbreaks in the foodservice industry, and all major foodservice chain organizations today have implemented a food safety management plan based on this program. Serving as a member of the USDA’s National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods, Dr. Theno was instrumental in changing the way the USDA and the industry look at food safety. He played an essential role in helping guide the beef industry’s research activities to better understand E. coli O157, and helped form the Beef Industry Food Safety Council, which develops and updates food safety practices that are critical for the food industry. Dr. Theno is one of the original authors of the HACCP guidance issued by FDA and USDA/FSIS that is in place today, and has authored numerous scientific and trade publication articles. “David Theno’s leadership through the E. coli outbreaks in the 1990s set the stage for the entire industry to come together in a non-competitive, collaborative effort to employ science-based solutions to tackle emerging pathogenic threats,” says Thomas H. Powell, Ph.D., CAE, Executive Director, American Meat Science Association. “Dr. Theno led the effort to identify and implement viable interventions and spurred research into new intervention strategies. His greatest impact was his unswerving dedication to protecting the consumer and his complete transparency with other industry food safety leaders. He freely shared the valuable insights he gained through the fiery trials on the front lines of the early outbreaks.” Dr. Lee-Ann Jaykus has over 30 years’ experience advancing the science of food safety through applied infection prevention and control science, especially regarding norovirus. She has collaborated on many large, multi-institutional projects on foodborne pathogens and food virology, including developing methods to detect human enteric virus contamination in foods and environmental samples, and better understanding the dynamics of virus transmission through the food chain. She serves as the Scientific Director of the USDA-NIFA Food Virology Collaborative (NoroCORE), a team of 30-plus scientists representing 18 academic and government institutions working to develop improved tools, skills and capacity to understand and control foodborne virus disease risks. Under Dr. Jaykus’ direction, NoroCORE has worked closely with companies, trade organizations, government regulators and public health entities to identify and address the most important food virology problems, and translate results into real-world processes and actions. These include cultivating human norovirus which had eluded scientists for 50 years, developing a risk-modeling program for tracking norovirus that can calculate disease risk and screen strategies for managing contamination in food service and health care facilities, confirming that alcohol-based hand sanitizers cannot completely inactivate norovirus and working to modify FDA Food Code recommendations to facilitate norovirus control. In her academic career, Dr. Jaykus has taught graduate and undergraduate courses in food microbiology and safety, mentored over 30 graduate students and post-doctoral research associates, and authored over 150 publications. “I have never met a scientist or food safety professional as enthusiastic and competent as Dr. Jaykus is in defining the issues, developing key needs, initiating the means to fill gaps and translating findings quickly into industry applications,” says Hal King, Ph.D., President/CEO of Public Health Innovations LLC. “Her work will lead to improved methods to prevent norovirus foodborne disease infections around the world, and she has elevated our nation’s food safety competencies across all sectors of the food chain.” Editor’s note: For more information on the NSF Food Safety Leadership Awards or to schedule an interview with an NSF International food safety expert, contact Liz Nowland-Margolis at media(at)nsf.org or +1 734-418-6624. About NSF International: NSF International (nsf.org) is a global independent organization that writes standards, and tests and certifies products for the food, water and consumer goods industries to minimize adverse health effects and protect the environment. Founded in 1944, NSF is committed to protecting human health and safety worldwide. NSF International is a Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization Collaborating Center on Food Safety, Water Quality and Indoor Environment. NSF International provides expertise and accredited food services across all supply chain sectors, including agriculture, animal feed and welfare, produce, processing, distribution, dairy, seafood, quality management software, retail and restaurants. Services include Global Food Safety Initiative, foodservice equipment and nonfood compounds certification, HACCP validation and inspection, label claims verification and certification, DNA and food package testing, product and process development, food fraud consulting and training, and organic and Certified Transitional certification through Quality Assurance International (QAI).
Hamza T.H.,New York State Department of Health
Nature genetics | Year: 2010
Parkinson's disease is a common disorder that leads to motor and cognitive disability. We performed a genome-wide association study of 2,000 individuals with Parkinson's disease (cases) and 1,986 unaffected controls from the NeuroGenetics Research Consortium (NGRC). We confirmed associations with SNCA and MAPT, replicated an association with GAK (using data from the NGRC and a previous study, P = 3.2 x 10(-9)) and detected a new association with the HLA region (using data from the NGRC only, P = 2.9 x 10(-8)), which replicated in two datasets (meta-analysis P = 1.9 x 10(-10)). The HLA association was uniform across all genetic and environmental risk strata and was strong in sporadic (P = 5.5 x 10(-10)) and late-onset (P = 2.4 x 10(-8)) disease. The association peak we found was at rs3129882, a noncoding variant in HLA-DRA. Two studies have previously suggested that rs3129882 influences expression of HLA-DR and HLA-DQ. The brains of individuals with Parkinson's disease show upregulation of DR antigens and the presence of DR-positive reactive microglia, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs reduce Parkinson's disease risk. The genetic association with HLA supports the involvement of the immune system in Parkinson's disease and offers new targets for drug development.
Megaraj V.,New York State Department of Health
Carcinogenesis | Year: 2014
The tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), which is abundant in tobacco smoke, is a potent lung procarcinogen. The present study was aimed to prove that transgenic expression of human cytochrome P450 2A13 (CYP2A13), known to be selectively expressed in the respiratory tract and be the most efficient enzyme for NNK bioactivation in vitro, will enhance NNK bioactivation and NNK-induced tumorigenesis in the mouse lung. Kinetic parameters of NNK bioactivation in vitro and incidence of NNK-induced lung tumors in vivo were determined for wild-type, Cyp2a5-null and CYP2A13-humanized (CYP2A13-transgenic/Cyp2a5-null) mice. As expected, in both liver and lung microsomes, the loss of CYP2A5 resulted in significant increases in Michaelis constant (K m) values for the formation of 4-oxo-4-(3-pyridyl)-butanal, representing the reactive intermediate that can lead to the formation of O(6)-methylguanine (O(6)-mG) DNA adducts; however, the gain of CYP2A13 at a fraction of the level of mouse lung CYP2A5 led to recovery of the activity in the lung, but not in the liver. The levels of O(6)-mG, the DNA adduct highly correlated with lung tumorigenesis, were significantly higher in the lungs of CYP2A13-humanized mice than in Cyp2a5-null mice. Moreover, incidences of lung tumorigenesis were significantly greater in CYP2A13-humanized mice than in Cyp2a5-null mice, and the magnitude of the differences in incidence was greater at low (30mg/kg) than at high (200mg/kg) NNK doses. These results indicate that CYP2A13 is a low K m enzyme in catalyzing NNK bioactivation in vivo and support the notion that genetic polymorphisms of CYP2A13 can influence the risks of tobacco-induced lung tumorigenesis in humans.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Continuing grant | Program: | Phase: Genetic Mechanisms | Award Amount: 425.00K | Year: 2015
This project will provide new insights into molecular interactions that govern how genes are turned on and off in living cells. The project focuses on a large protein complex called Mediator, which selectively turns on subsets of genes in both yeast and mammalian cells. Two central questions will be addressed. First, how does Mediator select and turn on its gene targets? Second, how does Mediator action in yeast compare to its action in mammalian cells? The comparative approach used in this project will have broad impact on fundamental understanding of gene activity in simple yeast versus complex mammalian cells. Some of the results will be in the form of big data--large data sets that describe molecular interactions across an entire genome--and these will be deposited in public archives where they can be freely accessed by scientists and the public. In addition, the project will provide training for undergraduates, a postdoctoral fellow, and two female graduate students, one of whom is a member of an underrepresented minority.
The Mediator protein complex consists of over twenty interacting proteins and is found in all cells with nuclei (eukaryotes). Mediator is known to play a critical gene activating role via association with the machinery responsible for RNA synthesis (transcription). However, how Mediator locates its gene targets and exactly what it does when it finds them, are not completely understood. This project will address these issues in three aims. The first will test the idea that proteins belonging to the general transcription machinery help Mediator to find its targets. The approach will be to compare Mediator association with its targets in normal yeast cells and in mutants in which components of the general transcription machinery are impaired, using a method called ChIP-seq that identifies where proteins associate with DNA across an entire genome. The second aim will follow up on previous results that suggested that Mediator association with different targets is related to differential dynamics--how fast Mediator finds its targets and how often and rapidly it leaves again. This idea will be tested using variations of chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP, the basis of ChIP-seq) that provide information on binding dynamics. These first two aims will be done using the model system of bakers yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), which is easy to work with but is quite similar to mammalian cells in its molecular makeup. In the third aim, the effect of impairing function of specific subunits of Mediator in mammalian cells on gene transcription will be tested by knocking down expression of those subunits and measuring the effect on genome-wide transcription by high throughput sequencing. In yeast, this has been a productive strategy for understanding how Mediator structure relates to its function. Comparing the results obtained in mammalian cells will reveal similarities and differences with yeast, and thereby reveal the value and limitations of knowledge gained using the yeast system.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Continuing grant | Program: | Phase: Genetic Mechanisms | Award Amount: 223.71K | Year: 2016
The transfer of DNA from one bacterium to another accelerates the evolution of new strains and species. On the negative side, DNA transfer could facilitate the spread of antibiotic resistance genes, complicating infectious disease treatment strategies. On the positive side, DNA transfer could also create bacterial strains with improved beneficial properties, such as the remediation of petroleum-contaminated soil. Mycobacteria are a branch of the bacterial kingdom that includes both pathogens and brownfield soil-dwelling species. A novel kind of highly effective DNA transfer process, in which two cells appear to swap DNA fragments along the whole chromosome, has been described for a common laboratory mycobacterial species. The current project will identify the genes involved in that process, also testing whether distantly related mycobacteria can partake in such a transfer. The project will provide opportunities for undergraduate students and local high school teachers to gain experience in research.
Conjugal DNA transfer has been described in Mycobacterium smegmatis, generating transconjugant genomes that are mixtures of the parental strains. Distributive Conjugal Transfer (DCT) differs from traditional plasmid-based conjugation systems both in creating mosaic genomes and in mechanism, and proteins usually found in plasmid transfer systems are absent from mycobacteria. A mating identity locus (mid), which determines donor or recipient activity, has been mapped to a six-gene cluster embedded within a 25-gene locus that encodes the ESX-1 secretion apparatus. The six genes comprising mid will be analyzed for their contribution to establishing mating identity, their functional association with ESX-1 secretion, and their impact on transcriptional pathways that respond to co-culture with a mating partner. DCT will also be tested in other isolates of M. smegmatis, and in other mycobacterial species. Genome sequencing of new isolates will provide comparative data for identifying the mosaicism that is a hallmark of DCT, and provide reference sequences for transconjugants generated in the laboratory. Successful implementation of this objective will provide a broader view of the impact of DCT on gene flow in the Mycobacterium genus, and provide additional genotype/phenotype information for the critical genes of the mid locus.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: Cellular Dynamics and Function | Award Amount: 547.96K | Year: 2015
The interphase microtubule array is a key cellular scaffold that provides structural support and directs organelle trafficking in nearly all eukaryotic cells. Its arrangement is fundamentally important for cell secretion, cell shape, growth, motility, and communication. Although the basic assembly of microtubules is well studied, very little is understood on how the array itself is organized. This is particularly important in multinucleated animal cells where multiple microtubule arrays are present and must maintain spatial separation so as not to interfere with each other. Establishing how these microtubule arrays are organized represents a fundamental challenge in understanding the basic organizational principles of eukaryotic cells. The preliminary data have identified multiple motor and cross-linker proteins that interact with microtubules and when deleted, result in broad alterations in array organization. The research plan is four fold: to understand at the cellular level where these effector proteins operate, to understand at the biochemical level how these effector proteins interact and function, to develop computational models that incorporate these activities and can predict/test understanding in multiple different scenarios, and to provide robust educational experiences to stimulate the next generation of scientists. This project will provide training opportunities for undergraduates recruited from a local teaching college and through Wadsworths Research Experiences for Undergraduates program, will strengthen research ties with neighboring institutions in the Albany Capitol region, and develop a new working relationship with an expert computational modeler. The investigator will further initiate a mentoring activity for postdocs and new investigators that provides a fresh perspective on career opportunities and pathways in the biological sciences
In detail, the investigator will use combinations of fluorescent reporter fusions and live cell light microscopy to quantitate protein and organelle distributions in multiple mutant backgrounds. This work will provide quantitative values and context for relevant protein interactions in cells. Participants will purify the known effector proteins and develop in vitro assays to determine specific associations and mechanistic detail on how they function. Results obtained from these two objectives will be fed into stochastic agent-based modeling efforts to build simulations that replicate the live cell results, inform whether the investigators need to consider alternate strategies and, importantly, enable prediction on how other microtubule arrays are organized in a broad range of organisms and strategies that are generally understudied in the biosciences. This project will provide training opportunities for undergraduates and mentoring activity for postdocs and new investigators that highlight different career pathways in the biological sciences.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: PHYSICAL & DYNAMIC METEOROLOGY | Award Amount: 588.38K | Year: 2016
This project is investigating water vapor absorption of near ultraviolet (NUV) solar radiation in the atmosphere. The results of this research may help resolve a long-standing discrepancy between modeled and observed solar energy absorption under clear sky conditions in the atmosphere. This research combines laboratory experiments, field measurements, and modeling to investigate critically important issues regarding the role of water vapor absorption in determining the radiative equilibrium of the atmosphere.
The objectives of the project are to make laboratory measurements of water vapor near UV absorption cross sections and their temperature dependence at spectral resolution and intervals comparable to existing satellite/surface ozone monitoring instruments, to monitor water vapor near UV spectral absorption in the tropical atmosphere, and to evaluate the consequences of including this near UV absorption by water vapor on satellite/surface ozone retrievals and on models of atmospheric radiation, circulation, and climate. Field measurements will be acquired by piggybacking a UV radiation spectrometer on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) project, the AERosols and Ocean Science Expeditions (AEROSE) field campaign in the equatorial Atlantic. A different partitioning of atmospheric absorption by ozone and water vapor could alter model simulations of large-scale atmospheric circulation.