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Salinardi T.C.,Columbia University | Rubin K.H.,Kraft Foods Inc. | Black R.M.,Kraft Foods Inc. | St-Onge M.-P.,Columbia University | St-Onge M.-P.,New York Obesity Research Center
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2010

Clinical studies have shown that the consumption of coffee mannooligosaccharides (MOS) decreases body fat, suggesting that MOS consumption may be useful for weight management. This study was undertaken to determine whether consumption of coffee MOS improves body composition when consumed as part of a weight-maintaining diet. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 54 men and women, age 19-65 y and with BMI of 27-33 kg/m2, consumed study beverages twice daily, for 12 wk. Beverages were identical except for the presence (MOS group) or absence (placebo group) of MOS (4 g/d). Body composition was assessed at baseline and endpoint using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Body weight, blood pressure, and assessments of feelings of appetite and satiety were taken weekly. Fifty men and women completed both baseline and endpoint MRI scans. There was a significant beverage x time interaction on total body volume (P = 0.026), total adipose tissue (TAT) (P = 0.046), and total subcutaneous adipose tissue (P = 0.032) in men but not women. Men consuming the MOS beverage had a greater percent change in total body volume (P = 0.043) and tended to have greater percent changes in subcutaneous (P = 0.069) and TAT (P = 0.098) compared with the placebo group. Consumption of a MOS-containing beverage, as part of a free-living weight-maintaining diet, leads to reductions in total body volume, relative to placebo, in men. More research is needed to further investigate the mechanism by which MOS may act to improve body composition and to elucidate the influence of gender. © 2010 American Society for Nutrition.

Ackermann R.T.,Northwestern University | Kenrik Duru O.,University of California at Los Angeles | Albu J.B.,New York Obesity Research Center | Schmittdiel J.A.,Kaiser Permanente | And 6 more authors.
American Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2015

The high prevalence and costs of type 2 diabetes makes it a rapidly evolving focus of policy action. Health systems, employers, community organizations, and public agencies have increasingly looked to translate the benefits of promising research interventions into innovative polices intended to prevent or control diabetes. Though guided by research, these health policies provide no guarantee of effectiveness and may have opportunity costs or unintended consequences. Natural experiments use pragmatic and available data sources to compare specific policies to other policy alternatives or predictions of what would likely have happened in the absence of any intervention. The Natural Experiments for Translation in Diabetes (NEXT-D) Study is a network of academic, community, industry, and policy partners, collaborating to advance the methods and practice of natural experimental research, with a shared aim of identifying and prioritizing the best policies to prevent and control diabetes. This manuscript describes the NEXT-D Study group's multi-sector natural experiments in areas of diabetes prevention or control as case examples to illustrate the selection, design, analysis, and challenges inherent to natural experimental study approaches to inform development or evaluation of health policies. © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

Schulte E.M.,University of Michigan | Avena N.M.,New York Obesity Research Center | Gearhardt A.N.,University of Michigan
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Objectives: We propose that highly processed foods share pharmacokinetic properties (e.g. concentrated dose, rapid rate of absorption) with drugs of abuse, due to the addition of fat and/or refined carbohydrates and the rapid rate the refined carbohydrates are absorbed into the system, indicated by glycemic load (GL). The current study provides preliminary evidence for the foods and food attributes implicated in addictive-like eating. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: University (Study One) and community (Study Two). Participants: 120 undergraduates participated in Study One and 384 participants recruited through Amazon MTurk participated in Study Two. Measurements: In Study One, participants (n = 120) completed the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) followed by a forced-choice task to indicate which foods, out of 35 foods varying in nutritional composition, were most associated with addictive-like eating behaviors. Using the same 35 foods, Study Two utilized hierarchical linear modeling to investigate which food attributes (e.g., fat grams) were related to addictive-like eating behavior (at level one) and explored the influence of individual differences for this association (at level two). Results: In Study One, processed foods, higher in fat and GL, were most frequently associated with addictive-like eating behaviors. In Study Two, processing was a large, positive predictor for whether a food was associated with problematic, addictive-like eating behaviors. BMI and YFAS symptom count were small-to-moderate, positive predictors for this association. In a separate model, fat and GL were large, positive predictors of problematic food ratings. YFAS symptom count was a small, positive predictor of the relationship between GL and food ratings. Conclusion: The current study provides preliminary evidence that not all foods are equally implicated in addictive-like eating behavior, and highly processed foods, which may share characteristics with drugs of abuse (e.g. high dose, rapid rate of absorption) appear to be particularly associated with "food addiction." © 2015 Schulte et al.

St-Onge M.-P.,New York Obesity Research Center | Gallagher D.,New York Obesity Research Center
Nutrition | Year: 2010

It has been well documented that as individuals age, body composition changes, even in the absence of changes in body weight. Studies have shown that fat mass increases and muscle mass decreases with age. However, it is unclear why such changes occur. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) and substrate oxidation rates have been examined with aging. It has been proposed that reductions in RMR and fat oxidation may lead to changes in body composition. Alternatively, changes in body composition with aging may lead to reductions in RMR. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the literature surrounding the impact of aging on RMR and substrate oxidation. Although long-term longitudinal studies are lacking, most cross-sectional studies or short-term longitudinal studies show a reduction in RMR with aging that cannot be explained by changes in body composition including loss in fat-free mass, where the latter includes atrophy or decreases in the mass of high metabolic rate organs. There is indirect evidence suggesting that the metabolic rate of individual organs is lower in older compared with younger individuals. With aging, we conclude that reductions in the mass of individual organs/tissues and in tissue-specific organ metabolic rate contribute to a reduction in RMR that in turn promotes changes in body composition favoring increased fat mass and reduced fat-free mass. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Thomas D.M.,Montclair State University | Bredlau C.,Montclair State University | Bosy-Westphal A.,University of Kiel | Mueller M.,University of Kiel | And 7 more authors.
Obesity | Year: 2013

Objective To develop a new geometrical index that combines height, waist circumference (WC), and hip circumference (HC) and relate this index to total and visceral body fat. Design and Methods Subject data were pooled from three databases that contained demographic, anthropometric, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measured fat mass, and magnetic resonance imaging measured visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume. Two elliptical models of the human body were developed. Body roundness was calculated from the model using a well-established constant arising from the theory. Regression models based on eccentricity and other variables were used to predict %body fat and %VAT. Results A body roundness index (BRI) was derived to quantify the individual body shape in a height-independent manner. Body roundness slightly improved predictions of %body fat and %VAT compared to the traditional metrics of body mass index (BMI), WC, or HC. On this basis, healthy body roundness ranges were established. An automated graphical program simulating study results was placed at http://www.pbrc.edu/bodyroundness. Conclusion BRI, a new shape measure, is a predictor of %body fat and %VAT and can be applied as a visual tool for health status evaluations. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

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