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Greenberg J.A.,Brooklyn College | Greenberg J.A.,New York Obesity Research and Nutrition Center | Greenberg J.A.,St Lukes Roosevelt Hospital Center
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2013

Background: Recently a number of studies have found a lower risk of dying for obese individuals than for normal-weight individuals. The explanation for these paradoxical findings has not yet been identified. Objective: The objective was to assess whether this paradoxical pattern exists in the US population and whether it can be explained by reverse causation. Design: Survival analyses were used to calculate the RR of all-cause mortality for obesity by using data from 35,673 participants in NHANES I (1971-1975), NHANES II (1976-1980), and NHANES III (1988-1994), which reported 7087 deaths during 3 different 15-y follow-up periods. Results: With normal weight as a referent, a lower relative mortality risk of obesity was found only in NHANES III and only among men with a wide variety of preexisting serious illnesses. For this subgroup, the relative mortality risks in NHANES I, II, and III were 2.22 (95% CI: 1.45, 3.40), 0.89 (95% CI: 0.70, 1.15), and 0.65 (95% CI: 0.47, 0.91), respectively. Whereas the mortality rate among seriously ill normal-weight men did not change significantly between NHANES I and III, it did decrease significantly among seriously ill obese men, suggesting that reverse causation was not responsible for the lower relative mortality risk among seriously ill obese men in NHANES III. Conclusions: Only obese NHANES male participants with a wide variety of serious illnesses experienced lower mortality risk than their normal-weight counterparts and only in NHANES III. Reverse causation seems unlikely to have played a role. These conclusions require confirmation. © 2013 American Society for Nutrition. Source

Atalayer D.,New York Obesity Research and Nutrition Center | Atalayer D.,Columbia University | Gibson C.,New York Obesity Research and Nutrition Center | Konopacka A.,New York Obesity Research and Nutrition Center | And 3 more authors.
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry | Year: 2013

There is growing evidence supporting a multifactorial etiology that includes genetic, neurochemical, and physiological components for eating disorders above and beyond the more conventional theories based on psychological and sociocultural factors. Ghrelin is one of the key gut signals associated with appetite, and the only known circulating hormone that triggers a positive energy balance by stimulating food intake. This review summarizes recent findings and several conflicting reports on ghrelin in eating disorders. Understanding these findings and inconsistencies may help in developing new methods to prevent and treat patients with these disorders. © 2012. Source

Atalayer D.,Columbia University | Atalayer D.,New York Obesity Research and Nutrition Center | Astbury N.M.,Columbia University | Astbury N.M.,New York Obesity Research and Nutrition Center
Aging and Disease | Year: 2013

We are expected to live longer than if we had been born 100 years ago however, the additional years are not necessarily spent in good health or free from disability. Body composition changes dramatically over the course of life. There is a gradual increase in body weight throughout adult life until the age of about 60-65 years. In contrast, body weight appears to decrease with age after the age of 65-75 years, even in those demonstrating a previous healthy body weight. This age related decrease in body weight, often called unintentional weight loss or involuntary weight loss can be a significant problem for the elderly. This has been shown to be related to decline in appetite and food intake is common amongst the elderly and is often referred to the anorexia of aging. Underlying mechanisms regulate energy homeostasis and appetite may change as people age. In this review, peripheral factors regulating appetite have been summarized in regards to their age-dependent changes and role in the etiology of anorexia of aging. Understanding the alterations in the mechanisms regulating appetite and food intake in conjunction with aging may help inform strategies that promote healthy aging and promote health and wellbeing in the elderly years, with the end goal to add life to the years and not just years to our lives. Source

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