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Hall Z.W.,New York Stem Cell Foundation | Kahler D.,New York Stem Cell Foundation | Manganiello M.,New York Stem Cell Foundation | Egli D.,New York Stem Cell Foundation | And 13 more authors.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences | Year: 2010

Sponsored by the New York Stem Cell Foundation (NYSCF), the "Fourth Annual Translational Stem Cell Research Conference: Breaking Ground" convened October 13-14, 2009 at The Rockefeller University in New York City to discuss translational stem cell research. Attracting over 400 scientists, patient advocates, and stem cell research supporters from fifteen countries, the two-day conference featured an afternoon of panel discussions, intended for a broad audience, followed by a second day of scientific talks and poster presentations. This report summarizes both days of this exciting conference. © 2010 New York Academy of Sciences.

Mann K.D.,Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute | Hoyt C.,Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute | Feldman S.,Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute | Blunt L.,Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology | Year: 2010

Central regulation of cardiac output via the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system allows the organism to respond to environmental changes. Sudden onset stimuli, startle stimuli, are useful probes to study central regulatory responses to the environment. In mammals, startle stimuli induce a transient bradycardia that habituates with repeated stimulation. Repeated presentation of the stimulus results in tachycardia. In this study, we investigate the behavioral regulation of heart rate in response to sudden stimuli in the zebrafish. Larval zebrafish show a stereotyped heart rate response to mild electrical shock. Naïve fish show a significant increase in interbeat interval that resolves in the 2 s following stimulation. This transient bradycardia decreases on repeated exposure to the stimulus. Following repeated stimulation, the fish become tachycardic within 1 min of stimulation. Both the transient bradycardia and following tachycardia responses are blocked with administration of the ganglionic blocker hexamethonium, demonstrating that these responses are mediated centrally. The transient bradycardia is blocked by the muscarinic antagonist atropine, suggesting that this response is mediated by the parasympathetic system, while the following tachycardia is specifically blocked by the beta-adrenergic antagonist propranolol, suggesting that this response is mediated by the sympathetic nervous system. Together, these results demonstrate that at the larval stage, zebrafish actively regulate cardiac output to changes in their environment using both the parasympathetic and sympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system, a behavioral response that is markedly similar to that observed in mammals to similar sudden onset stimuli. Copyright © 2010 the American Physiological Society.

Nostro M.C.,University of Toronto | Sarangi F.,University of Toronto | Ogawa S.,University of Toronto | Holtzinger A.,University of Toronto | And 10 more authors.
Development | Year: 2011

The generation of insulin-producing β-cells from human pluripotent stem cells is dependent on efficient endoderm induction and appropriate patterning and specification of this germ layer to a pancreatic fate. In this study, we elucidated the temporal requirements for TGFβ family members and canonical WNT signaling at these developmental stages and show that the duration of nodal/activin A signaling plays a pivotal role in establishing an appropriate definitive endoderm population for specification to the pancreatic lineage. WNT signaling was found to induce a posterior endoderm fate and at optimal concentrations enhanced the development of pancreatic lineage cells. Inhibition of the BMP signaling pathway at specific stages was essential for the generation of insulin-expressing cells and the extent of BMP inhibition required varied widely among the cell lines tested. Optimal stage-specific manipulation of these pathways resulted in a striking 250-fold increase in the levels of insulin expression and yielded populations containing up to 25% C-peptide+ cells. © 2011. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

Phoenix T.N.,New York Neural Stem Cell Institute | Phoenix T.N.,Albany Medical College | Temple S.,New York Neural Stem Cell Institute | Temple S.,Albany Medical College
Genes and Development | Year: 2010

Neural stem cells (NSCs) have great potential for self-renewal, which must be tightly regulated to generate appropriate cell numbers during development and to prevent tumor formation. The Ras-MAPK-ERK pathway affects mitogen-stimulated proliferation, and negative regulators are likely to be important for keeping self-renewal in check. Sprouty-related protein with an EVH1 domain (Spred1) is a recently discovered negative Ras-MAPK-ERK regulator linked to a neurofibromatosis 1 (NF-1)-like human syndrome; however, its role in CNS development has not been explored. We show that Spred1 is highly enriched in CNS germinal zones during neurogenesis. Spred1 knockdown increases NSC self-renewal and progenitor proliferation cell-autonomously, and overexpression causes premature differentiation. Surprisingly, Spred1 knockdown in vivo in the embryonic mouse forebrain frequently resulted in periventricular heterotopia, developmental abnormalities often associated with mutations in genes in the vesicular trafficking pathway that cause disruption of germinal zones and impair cell migration. In cortical progenitor cells, Spred1 localizes within distinct vesicles, indicating a potential role in transport. Spred1 knockdown gradually leads to disruption of the apical ventricular zone and loss of radial glia alignment. This impairs late neuronal migration, resulting in the formation of periventricular masses. Thus, Spred1 is critical for normal cortical development, as it modulates progenitor self-renewal/proliferation and helps maintain the integrity and organization of germinal zones. © 2010 by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

Kokovay E.,New York Neural Stem Cell Institute | Kokovay E.,Albany Medical College | Goderie S.,New York Neural Stem Cell Institute | Wang Y.,New York Neural Stem Cell Institute | And 8 more authors.
Cell Stem Cell | Year: 2010

Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in the adult subventricular zone (SVZ) are associated with ependymal and vasculature niches, which regulate stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. Activated Type B stem cells and their progeny, the transit-amplifying type C cells, which express EGFR, are most highly associated with vascular cells, indicating that this niche supports lineage progression. Here, we show that proliferative SVZ progenitor cells home to endothelial cells in a stromal-derived factor 1 (SDF1)- and CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4)-dependent manner. We show that SDF1 strongly upregulates EGFR and α6 integrin in activated type B and type C cells, enhancing their activated state and their ability to bind laminin in the vascular niche. SDF1 increases the motility of type A neuroblasts, which migrate from the SVZ toward the olfactory bulb. Thus, differential responses to SDF1 can regulate progenitor cell occupancy of and exit from the adult SVZ vascular niche. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

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