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Munoz E.,The New School | Munoz W.,New Jersey General Assembly and Legislature | Wise L.,New York Methodist Hospital
Annals of Surgery

Objective and Background: Health care expenditures for 2005 in the United States were 1.9733 trillion and 15.9% of the gross domestic product (GDP). Twenty-nine percent of those expenditures were secondary to surgical revenues. Health care expenditures are increasing 21/2 times the rate of the general US economy and are being fed by new technologies, new medications, the aging population, more services provided per patient, defensive medicine and little tort reform, the insurance system, and the free rider problem, ie, patients are cared for as emergencies regardless of insurance coverage and legality, which all have contributed to rising health care and surgical expenditures over the last 50 years. Methods: The purpose of this study was to project aggregate national health care expenditures, aggregate surgical health care expenditures, and the United States GDP for the years 2005-2025. Model building and existing state and national data were used. Aggregate surgical health care expenditures were computed as 29% of aggregate health care expenditures using a unique model developed by the late Dr. Francis D. Moore. The model of Dr. Moore which used 1981 federal data was verified/tested using data from UMDNJ-University Hospital, and New Jersey and national data from 2005. From 1965 to 2005 mean health care expenditures increased at 4.9% per year, and US GDP increased at a mean of 2.1% per year. Results: Aggregate surgical expenditures are expected to grow from 572 billion in 2005 (4.6% of US GDP) to 912 billion (2005 dollars) in the year 2025 (7.3% of US GDP). Aggregate health care expenditures are projected to increase from 5572 per capita (15.9% of GDP) in 2005 to 8832 per capita (2005 dollars) in 2025 (25.2% of US GDP). Both surgery and national health care expenditures are expected to expand by almost 60% during the period 2005-2025. Thus, surgical health care expenditures by 2025 are likely to be 1/14 of the US economy, and health care expenditures will be 1/4 of the US economy. Conclusions: Real per capita GDP growth is relatively flat in the United States. Rising surgical health care expenditures and national health care expenditures are a significant issue for the US population. Unfortunately, programs at the state and federal level as well as private programs, for the last 50 years have not been able to slow the growth in health care expenditures. These trends are likely to continue and the effects will be: A change in the US standard of living as surgical and health care expenditures become a larger part of the earned dollar per American especially with the current volatility of the US economy, A rise in the cost of products made in the United States to pay the rising health care bill with a concomitant change in our national and international standard of living, and An increasing debt and increases in federal and state taxes which will be required to maintain the current health care system, ie, Medicare, Medicaid, and the private health care insurance payment scheme, which has not changed substantially over the past 40 to 50 years. Surgeons must look at the incremental benefit of new technologies and procedures and determine which to choose if we are to slow the growth of surgical health care expenditures. Copyright © 2010 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Wunderlich S.M.,Montclair State University | Emmolo J.S.,New York Methodist Hospital
Supportive Care in Cancer

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate current assessment practices of malnourishment by radiation oncologists among the head and neck cancer patient population. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted. A 14-question survey was mailed to 333 radiation oncologists self-identified as "interested in the treatment of head and neck cancer." Results: About 87% of radiation oncologists indicated that they used bodyweight as the sole determinant of malnourishment in head and neck cancer patients at initial consultation. Radiation oncologists with 0 to 10 years experience were found to have a higher level of formal nutrition education than those with 11 to 20 years (p = 0.0052). A significant difference was found between radiation oncologists with formal nutrition education vs. those without, in answering whether nutrition interventions play a significant role in the prognosis of such cancer patients (p = 0.0013). In addition, a significant difference was noted in methods used to determine proper caloric intake when the oncologists were stratified by their beliefs about nutrition being a significant variable affecting the prognosis of head and neck cancer patients (p = 0.0024). Conclusion: Assessment or screening for malnourishment in the head and neck cancer patient should be a routine part of the initial consultation. Radiation oncologists and their medical team, including nutritionists, should use an appropriate nutrition screening and assessment tool in addition to the body weight as an indicator of malnourishment. Nutrition education provided to radiation oncologists should be improved to better communicate the positive effects of nutrition interventions on prognosis. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source

Tavakol M.,New York Methodist Hospital
Global journal of health science

Coronary angiography and heart catheterization are invaluable tests for the detection and quantification of coronary artery disease, identification of valvular and other structural abnormalities, and measurement of hemodynamic parameters. The risks and complications associated with these procedures relate to the patient's concomitant conditions and to the skill and judgment of the operator. In this review, we examine in detail the major complications associated with invasive cardiac procedures and provide the reader with a comprehensive bibliography for advanced reading. Source

Carmel R.,New York Methodist Hospital | Carmel R.,Cornell University
Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease

The success of folic acid fortification has generated consideration of similar fortification with cobalamin for its own sake but more so to mitigate possible neurologic risks from increased folate intake by cobalamin-deficient persons. However, the folate model itself, the success of which was predicted by successful clinical trials and the known favorable facts of high folic acid bioavailability and the infrequency of folate malabsorption, may not apply to cobalamin fortification. Cobalamin bioavailability is more restricted than folic acid and is unfortunately poorest in persons deficient in cobalamin. Moreover, clinical trials to demonstrate actual health benefits of relevant oral doses have not yet been done in persons with mild subclinical deficiency, who are the only practical targets of cobalamin fortification because >94% of persons with clinically overt cobalamin deficiency have severe malabsorption and therefore cannot respond to normal fortification doses. However, it is only in the severely malabsorptive disorders, such as pernicious anemia, not subclinical deficiency, that neurologic deterioration following folic acid therapy has been described to date. It is still unknown whether mild deficiency states, which usually arise from normal absorption or only food-bound cobalamin malabsorption, have real health consequences or how often they progress to overt clinical cobalamin deficiency. Reports of cognitive or other risks in the common subclinical deficiency state, although worrisome, have been inconsistent. Moreover, their observational nature proved neither causative connections nor documented health benefits. Extensive work, especially randomized clinical trials, must be done before mandatory dietary intervention on a national scale can be justified. © SSIEM and Springer 2010. Source

Fujitani S.,Kanagawa University | Sun H.-Y.,National Taiwan University | Yu V.L.,University of Pittsburgh | Weingarten J.A.,New York Methodist Hospital

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an uncommon cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), but a common cause of hospital-acquired pneumonia. Controversies exist for diagnostic methods and antibiotic therapy. We review the epidemiology of CAP, including that in patients with HIV and also in hospital-acquired pneumonia, including ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and bronchoscope-associated pneumonia. We performed a literature review of clinical studies involving P aeruginosa pneumonia with an emphasis on treatment and prevention. Pneumonia due to P aeruginosa occurs in several distinct syndromes: (1) CAP, usually in patients with chronic lung disease; (2) hospital-acquired pneumonia, usually occurring in the ICU; and (3) bacteremic P aeruginosa pneumonia, usually in the neutropenic host. Radiologic manifestations are nonspecific. Colonization with P aeruginosa in COPD and in hospitalized patients is a well established phenomenon such that treatment based on respiratory tract cultures may lead to overtreatment. We present circumstantial evidence that the incidence of P aeruginosa has been over estimated for hospital-acquired pneumonia and reflex administration of empirical antipseudomonal antibiotic therapy may be unnecessary. A diagnostic approach with BAL and protected specimen brush using quantitative cultures for patients with VAP led to a decrease in broad-spectrum antibiotic use and improved outcome. Endotracheal aspirate cultures with quantitative counts are commonly used, but validation is lacking. An empirical approach using the Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score is a pragmatic approach that minimizes antibiotic resistance and leads to decreased mortality in patients in the ICU. The source of the P aeruginosa may be endogenous (from respiratory or GI tract colonization) or exogenous from tap water in hospital-acquired pneumonia. The latter source is amenable to preventive measures. © 2011 American College of Chest Physicians. Source

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