Old Westbury, NY, United States

New York Institute of Technology

Old Westbury, NY, United States

New York Institute of Technology is a global private, independent, nonprofit, non-sectarian, coeducational research university. NYIT has five schools and two colleges, all with a strong emphasis on technology and applied scientific research: School of Architecture and Design, School of Education, School of Engineering and Computing science, School of Health Professions, School of Management, College of Arts and science and College of Osteopathic Medicine. The university has two New York campuses, one in Old Westbury Long Island and one near Columbus Circle in Manhattan, as well as several global campuses in: Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates; Nanjing, China; and Vancouver, Canada. New York Institute of Technology offers over 90 degree programs, including undergraduate, graduate, and professional degrees, in more than 50 fields of study, including architecture and design; arts and science; education; engineering and computing science; health professions; management; and osteopathic medicine. Its Carnegie Classification is Masters-Granting "Research University," very high research activity.NYIT students represent nearly all 50 U.S. states and 109 countries. NYIT consistently ranks in the "top 50" among U.S. universities in the north, as compiled by U.S. News & World Report. Wikipedia.

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The invention relates to a catheter useful in recording His electrogram alternans. The catheter includes a catheter probe containing at least one row of receiving poles positioned at an edge of the catheter probe, equidistantly spaced from each other. An apparatus useful in receiving an electrical signal from cardiac tissue, said apparatus comprising a catheter probe at one end and a flexible elongate member at the other end, wherein said catheter probe comprises a plurality of receiving poles positioned in a row at a first edge of said probe, said poles positioned equidistant from each other, wherein said catheter probe is from about 6 cm to about 10 cm in length, and from about 3 mm to about 5 mm in width or diameter, and said elongate member is capable of moving through a human blood vessel.

Kurtzer I.L.,New York Institute of Technology
Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience | Year: 2015

Accurate control of body posture is enforced by a multitude of corrective actions operating over a range of time scales. The earliest correction is the short-latency reflex (SLR) which occurs between 20–45 ms following a sudden displacement of the limb and is generated entirely by spinal circuits. In contrast, voluntary reactions are generated by a highly distributed network but at a significantly longer delay after stimulus onset (greater than 100 ms). Between these two epochs is the long-latency reflex (LLR) (around 50–100 ms) which acts more rapidly than voluntary reactions but shares some supraspinal pathways and functional capabilities. In particular, the LLR accounts for the arm’s biomechanical properties rather than only responding to local muscle stretch like the SLR. This paper will review how the LLR accounts for the arm’s biomechanical properties and the supraspinal pathways supporting this ability. Relevant experimental paradigms include clinical studies, non-invasive brain stimulation, neural recordings in monkeys, and human behavioral studies. The sum of this effort indicates that primary motor cortex and reticular formation (RF) contribute to the LLR either by generating or scaling its structured response appropriate for the arm’s biomechanics whereas the cerebellum scales the magnitude of the feedback response. Additional putative pathways are discussed as well as potential research lines. © 2015 Kurtzer.

The invention relates to a catheter useful in recording His electrogram alternans. The catheter includes a catheter probe containing at least one row of receiving poles positioned at an edge of the catheter probe, equidistantly spaced from each other.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: SPECIAL PROJECTS - CISE | Award Amount: 311.54K | Year: 2016

Common smartphone authentication mechanisms such as PINs, graphical passwords, and fingerprint scans offer limited security. They are relatively easy to guess or spoof, and are ineffective when the smartphone is captured after the user has logged in. Multi-modal active authentication addresses these challenges by frequently and unobtrusively authenticating the user via behavioral biometric signals, such as touchscreen interaction, hand movements, gait, voice, and phone location. However, these techniques raise significant privacy and security concerns because the behavioral signals used for authentication represents personal identifiable data, and often expose private information such as user activity, health, and location. Because smartphones can be easily lost or stolen, it is paramount to protect all sensitive behavioral information collected and processed on these devices. One approach for securing behavioral data is to perform off-device authentication via privacy-preserving protocols. However, our experiments show that the energy required to execute these protocols, implemented using state-of-the-art techniques, is unsustainably high, and leads to very quick depletion of the smartphones battery.

This research advances the state of the art of privacy-preserving active authentication by devising new techniques that significantly reduce the energy cost of cryptographic authentication protocols on smartphones. Further, this research takes into account signals that indicate that the user has lost possession of the smartphone, in order to trigger user authentication only when necessary. The focus of this project is in sharp contrast with existing techniques and protocols, which have been largely agnostic to energy consumption patterns and to the user1s possession of the smartphone post-authentication. The outcome of this project is a suite of new cryptographic techniques and possession-aware protocols that enable secure energy-efficient active authentication of smartphone users. These cryptographic techniques advance the state of the art of privacy-preserving active authentication by re-shaping individual protocol components to take into account complex energy tradeoffs and network heterogeneity, integral to modern smartphones. Finally, this project will focus on novel techniques to securely offload computation related to active authentication from the smartphone to a (possibly untrusted) cloud, further reducing the energy footprint of authentication. The proposed research will thus make privacy-preserving active authentication practical on smartphones, from both an energy and performance perspective.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: SPRF-IBSS | Award Amount: 219.35K | Year: 2016

The Directorate of Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences offers postdoctoral research fellowships to provide opportunities for recent doctoral graduates to obtain additional training, to gain research experience under the sponsorship of established scientists, and to broaden their scientific horizons beyond their undergraduate and graduate training. Postdoctoral fellowships are further designed to assist new scientists to direct their research efforts across traditional disciplinary lines and to avail themselves of unique research resources, sites, and facilities, including at foreign locations. This postdoctoral fellowship award supports a rising scholar at the intersection of several fields of science: Human Evolution, Biomechanics, Evolutionary Modeling and Primatology to investigate the origins of the peculiar type of locomotion (also called knuckle-walking) that is used only by our closest living primate relatives, chimpanzees and gorillas, and may have been used by our earliest ancestors. This bizarre form of locomotion has led to decades of research focusing on why an animal would knuckle-walk over any other form of locomotion, and when and how many times it has evolved. However, critical to addressing any hypotheses concerning the origin of knuckle-walking are basic data that allow the Fellow to understand how it works. By fully understanding how knucklewalking works, the project team will be able to directly investigate the origin and evolution of knucklewalking in apes. This will enable the team to infer its presence in fossil apes as well as the last common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees. The project has substantial collaboration with scientists and students in Rwanda, going much deeper beyond simply doing fieldwork and data collection. The research team will host Rwandan university students for internships, and students conducting their senior research at the Karisoke Research Center. This project also facilitates opportunities to engage Rwandan undergraduate students and early career scientists. Through this type of international collaboration, US scientists, postdoctoral scholars and students engage in meaningful research to advance the state of the art in the field of anthropology and biomechanics.

In this project, a team of scientists utilize state-of-the-art laboratory- and field-based biomechanical analyses of locomotion in chimpanzees, gorillas, and macaques, as well as phylogenetic comparative methodologies in order to test assumptions about the evolution of this unique form of locomotion, and to understand how, when, and how many times this locomotor behavior evolved. Specifically, in this project the team of scientists will: 1) perform a 3-D jointlevel mechanical analysis of knuckle-walking in chimpanzees and digitigrade/palmigrade walking in macaques, 2) create a computational model that allows for examination of the benefits of knuckle-walking over other forms of terrestrial locomotion, 3) use evolutionary modeling to track the evolution of knuckle-walking in the hominoid tree of life and to infer its presence in fossil apes, and 4) develop protocols for collecting non-invasive 3-D field kinematic data from wild, critically endangered mountain gorillas, including knuckle-walking. The broader impacts of this research will target both scientific and educational domains. The researchers will develop protocols to investigate locomotion in wild, critically endangered mountain gorillas. This will not only provide never-before-seen insights into gorilla locomotion, but the protocols will be widely applicable to other endangered species. Moreover, this project will support the research of an early-career scientist, and will involve mentoring of graduate and undergraduate students. By training the next generation of scientists and creating freely-available data resources and research protocols, this project will facilitate discoveries about the origin of our closest living ape relatives, as well as the origin of our own species, that go far beyond the present project. The project involves international collaboration at multiple levels, and is co-funded by the NSF Office of International Science and Engineering.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: PHYLOGENETIC SYSTEMATICS | Award Amount: 51.48K | Year: 2015

Despite advances in knowledge of brain function, the relationship between brain evolution and ecological diversity remains poorly known. A prominent example is that of birds. Taking to the air enabled the dinosaurian ancestors of birds to exploit a range of ecological niches that now underlie the remarkable modern diversity of the group (approximately 10,000 living species). A significant part of this evolutionary success may have stemmed from the development of a relatively large brain, which has been considered necessary for coordinating the various, nuanced components of powered flight. This study complements the NSF BRAIN initiative by using a cross-disciplinary approach to understand the complex neurological evolution of birds and their dinosaurian relatives. To that end, an array of new techniques and new applications of existing technologies are employed to document the major changes in the brain associated with the origin of powered flight. This study also will establish a model of brain expansion complementing that already available for mammals. The outcome will be an unprecedented database of avian brain anatomy that includes not only imagery of morphological systems but also their relation to data generated through brain function.

The relationship between neuroanatomical, cognitive and behavioral evolution remains poorly understood, especially in deep time and across the vertebrate tree of life. This study addresses this relationship using a cross-disciplinary investigation of the evolutionary link between the large brain of living birds and the morphological changes that mark the transition from cursorial (running) dinosaur to flying bird. Initial steps use innovative imaging methods and novel staining techniques to generate the first data on what areas of the brain birds use while flying, and how this activity differs from that of other behaviors. These data will serve as a framework for a broad analysis of encephalization (increasing head size) within living birds and along the lineage where avian flight originated. Shared landmarks will be used to subdivide the endocranial cavity into functionally relevant partitions that allow testing for volumetric size changes between individual neural structures, including those most active during flight. This study also will use geometric morphometrics (anatomical comparisons) to assess covariation between neuroanatomical partitions and thus the presence of functionally and/or evolutionarily integrated regions of the brain. In short, the proposed study will generate data on how birds use their brain and apply those data to better understand the ancient relationship between brain evolution and the origin of the highly derived avian body plan.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Continuing grant | Program: | Phase: SEDIMENTARY GEO & PALEOBIOLOGY | Award Amount: 220.18K | Year: 2014

How Development and Behavior Interact to Change Skull Form: Exploring and Sharing Evolutionary Insights from the Fossil Record of Cetaceans (Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises)

Jonathan H. Geisler
New York Institute of Technology
NSF EAR-1349607

Extant cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises) display an extraordinary diversity of skull shapes, yet there is wide anatomical gap between the skulls of cetaceans and those of other mammals. Fortunately the fossil record of cetaceans bridges much of this anatomical gap, making it one of the best documented, but least appreciated, examples of large-scale evolutionary change. In this project we will explore how the cetacean skull evolved and test whether its shape was influenced by changes in brain size, feeding behavior, or the advent of echolocation. To accomplish these aims we will apply a wide array of technology to more than 400 skulls of recent and fossil species, including a laser scanner to generate 3D digital computer models of skulls, X-ray computed tomography (CT scans) to probe inside fossil skulls, and sophisticated computer applications that can analyze the data we collect in the context of evolutionary relationships. We will also formally name four new species of 30 million year old fossil whales that document key stages in the cetacean evolution.

Our project will use several strategies to share and disseminate our discoveries. The new fossil species we name will be displayed at the College of Charleston Natural History Museum, and 3D printed models of their inner ears and brains (developed from CT scans) will be displayed at that museum as well as at the Georgia Southern Museum. In both places these objects and specimens will be integrated into exhibits that describe the remarkable history of whale and dolphin evolution. A wider audience will learn of our discoveries through an updated website on cetacean evolution. In all stages of our project, we will involve students in the act of scientific investigation, thus training future scientists. Specifically we will engage undergraduates at the College of Charleston and New York Institute of Technology as well as medical students at the latter institution. A Postdoctoral Scholar is part of the project team, and through this project, he/she will develop a diverse skill set that should serve as a catalyst for a successful career in science.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: | Award Amount: 98.88K | Year: 2015

1541866 (Assaf- Anid). The workshop Food, Energy, and Water (FEW) Nexus in Sustainable Cities, to be held in Beijing on October 20 and 21, 2015, will convene participants from both the United States and China. Both nations are principal actors in global sustainability. The FEW workshop will provide participants from both nations opportunities to explore scientific challenges of mutual interest in sustainability and stressors on the built environment in relation to the FEW nexus. The workshops programming team is led by New York Institute of Technology (NYIT) in collaboration with Peking University (PKU). Several academic, government, and private entities will be actively engaged in planning the workshop, including from the United States: NYIT (Dr. Nada Assaf-Anid), and the American Institute of Chemical Engineers and its Institute for Sustainability (AIChE-IfS, Dr. Darlene Schuster), and from China: Peking University (Dr. Chunmiao Zheng) and Wuhan University (Dr. Xiaohui Cui), along with representatives from the various agencies in the U.S. and China. The overarching goal of the workshop is to stimulate basic research on the interdependence of systems involving agriculture, water, and energy, as well as to identify barriers to sustainability in food production, transport, distribution, use, and access in urban environments.

The workshop will cover several research areas, including sustainability and life-cycle assessment challenges in addressing complex systems-based indicators and responses to stressors and coupling those responses to the FEW system, as well as technology breakthroughs and approaches for more efficient FEW resource utilization and reuse in cities. The workshop will enhance scientific cooperation between U.S. and Chinese scholars, educators, industry practitioners, government agency representatives, urban planners and policymakers. The workshop is to result in a white paper on scientific, engineering and information systems and data challenges in understanding FEW systems.

This workshop is co-funded by the CBET/ENG Environmental Sustainability program and the Global Venture Fund (GVF) of the Office of International Science and Engineering (OISE).

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: | Award Amount: 379.99K | Year: 2016

This CISE Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Site award funds the renewal of an outstanding REU site at New York Institute of Technology. The site will recruit undergraduates from across the nation to participate in research related to securing mobile devices such as smart phones and wireless networks. Securing mobile devices and networks is an area of current interest that is well-suited to undergraduate research productivity. The students will use state-of-the-art research environments to address the challenges of securing mobile devices by creating new methods for authenticating users of mobile devices, efficient cryptographic protocols that preserve privacy of data, detecting malware, and designing secure communication protocols using both hardware and software approaches. This site should help develop a group of computing professionals who can design the systems of the future that impact society and enhance our quality of life. The REU experience provides students with the foundations and inspiration to pursue computing careers and research in areas that are rapidly evolving and are of importance to the nation.

The project is led by an outstanding team offering modern facilities and professional mentors to guide undergraduates in explorations of problems related to mobile security. Students will learn how to use current tools and techniques to solve those problems that have direct impact on people. The team will use proven strategies to recruit undergraduate students from groups traditionally under-represented in computer science. The students will participate in research and professional development activities all designed to achieve the goals of retaining and graduating undergraduate students in computer science and engineering, recruiting students from groups traditionally under-represented in computing fields, and increasing recruitment of students into graduate programs.

New York Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-11-12

A motorized walker is provided that can enable users to walk without being slowed by the walker and without needing to exert themselves to push the walker forward. The motorized walker provides additional haptic speed cues to inform the users posture and locomotion control to prevent falling.

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