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Sydney Olympic Park, Australia

Doramaci S.,New South Wales Institute of Sport | Doramaci S.,University of Technology, Sydney | Watsford M.,University of Technology, Sydney | Murphy A.,University of New England of Australia
Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness | Year: 2015

Aim: This study aimed to quantify the activity profiles of futsal players during a tournament, and detect changes in performance towards the final matches, focusing on changes in high-intensity activity. Methods: One team competing in the Australian National Futsal Championships was assessed over six matches across three days. Ball possession, activity profiles and match activities were monitored by means of video recording, enabling a comparison of notational analysis results between individual matches, as well as grouping matches to compare the first half of the tournament to the last. Results: There was a 26.8% decrease in the total raw sprinting distance (P<0.01), a 29% decrease in the sprinting duration (P=0.02), an increase in the number of successful passes (168.0±44.0 to 178.7±38.1, P=0.02) and a decrease in unsuccessful passes (24.0±11.5 to 21.3±2.08, P=0.04) when comparing matches 1-3 with matches 4-6. Further, there was a decrease in the total number of touches of the ball for the same grouped analysis (600.0±116.9 to 589.7±117.1; P=0.01). Conclusion: A decrease in sprinting activity and increase in walking activity was evident from the start of the tournament to the end, suggesting cumulative fatigue. Interestingly, these changes did not appear to influence the performance of match activities as the number of successful passes increased and the number of unsuccessful passes and total touches on the ball decreased towards the end of the tournament. It is likely that the coach's rotation of players contributed to the results observed, and when used correctly in situations of multiple matches in a short timeframe, can maximise overall team work-rate across a variety of team court sports.

Scott B.R.,University of Newcastle | Loenneke J.P.,University of Mississippi | Slattery K.M.,University of Newcastle | Slattery K.M.,New South Wales Institute of Sport | Dascombe B.J.,University of Newcastle
Sports Medicine | Year: 2015

A growing body of evidence supports the use of moderate blood flow restriction (BFR) combined with low-load resistance exercise to enhance hypertrophic and strength responses in skeletal muscle. Research also suggests that BFR during low-workload aerobic exercise can result in small but significant morphological and strength gains, and BFR alone may attenuate atrophy during periods of unloading. While BFR appears to be beneficial for both clinical and athletic cohorts, there is currently no common consensus amongst scientists and practitioners regarding the best practice for implementing BFR methods. If BFR is not employed appropriately, there is a risk of injury to the participant. It is also important to understand how variations in the cuff application can affect the physiological responses and subsequent adaptation to BFR training. The optimal way to manipulate acute exercise variables, such as exercise type, load, volume, inter-set rest periods and training frequency, must also be considered prior to designing a BFR training programme. The purpose of this review is to provide an evidence-based approach to implementing BFR exercise. These guidelines could be useful for practitioners using BFR training in either clinical or athletic settings, or for researchers in the design of future studies investigating BFR exercise. © 2014, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

Scott B.R.,University of Newcastle | Dascombe B.J.,University of Newcastle | Delaney J.A.,University of Newcastle | Elsworthy N.,University of Newcastle | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2014

Scott, BR, Dascombe, BJ, Delaney, JA, Elsworthy, N, Lockie, RG, Sculley, DV, and Slattery, KM. The validity and reliability of a customized rigid supportive harness during Smith machine back squat exercise. J Strength Cond Res 28(3): 636-642, 2014- Although the back squat exercise is commonly prescribed to both athletic and clinical populations, individuals with restricted glenohumeral mobility may be unable to safely support the bar on the upper trapezius using their hands. The aims of this study were to investigate the validity and reliability of a back squat variation using a rigid supportive harness that does not require unrestricted glenohumeral mobility for quantifying 1 repetition maximum (1RM). Thirteen young men (age = 25.3 ± 4.5 years, height = 179.2 ± 6.9 cm, and body mass = 86.6 ± 12.0 kg) with at least 2 years resistance training experience volunteered to participate in the study. Subjects reported to the lab on 3 occasions, each separated by 1 week. During testing sessions, subjects were assessed for 1RM using the traditional back squat (session 1) and harness back squat (HBS; sessions 2 and 3) exercises. Mean 1RM for the traditional back squat, and 2 testing sessions of the HBS (HBS1 and HBS2) were 148.4 ± 25.0 kg, 152.5 ± 25.7 kg, and 150.4 ± 22.6 kg, respectively. Back squat and mean HBS 1RM scores were very strongly correlated (r = 0.96; p ≥ 0.001). There were no significant differences in 1RM scores between the 3 trials. The test-retest 1RM scores with the HBS demonstrated high reliability, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.98 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.93-0.99), and a coefficient of variation of 2.6% (95% CI = 1.9-4.3). Taken together, these data suggest that the HBS exercise is a valid and reliable method for assessing 1RM in young men with previous resistance training experience and may be useful for individuals with restricted glenohumeral mobility. © 2014 National Strength and Conditioning Association.

Wallace L.K.,University of Technology, Sydney | Slattery K.M.,University of Technology, Sydney | Slattery K.M.,New South Wales Institute of Sport | Impellizzeri F.M.,University of Verona | Coutts A.J.,University of Technology, Sydney
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2014

The purpose of this investigation was to compare the criterion validity and test-retest reliability of common methods for quantifying training load. Ten (5 men and 5 women) recreational athletes (mean ± SD, V̇O 2max: 37.0 ± 4.3 ml·kg-1·min -1; age: 23.8 ± 8.4 years) completed 18 randomly assigned steady state (SS) and interval (INT) training sessions during a 6-week period. Steady-state sessions were 18 minutes in duration and were performed at 35, 50, and 65% of maximum work capacity (Wmax). Interval sessions were performed at 50, 60, and 70% of Wmax with a work to rest ratio of 1:1 and matched for total work with the 50% SS session. Oxygen consumption (V̇O2) and heart rate (HR) were measured throughout all sessions, whereas blood lactate concentration and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) measures were taken every ± minutes during sessions. Session-RPE (sRPE) was collected after each exercise bout. All individual correlations between V̇O2 and external work (r = 0.88-0.97), HR (r = 0.65-0.90), and RPE-based methods (r = 0.55-0.89) were statistically significant. External work correlated best with the total V̇O2 and was significantly different from RPE-based methods. A poor level of test-retest reliability was shown for Banister's TRIMP (15.6% coefficient of variation [CV]), Lucia's TRIMP (10.7% CV), and sRPE (28.1% CV). Good reliability was shown for HR (3.9% CV) and a moderate level for RPE 6-20 (8.5% CV) as a measure of exercise intensity. These results suggest external work to be the most valid and reliable method for quantifying training load. Poor levels of reliability were reported for each of the HR-based TRIMP methods and RPE-based methods. © 2014 National Strength and Conditioning Association.

Scott B.R.,University of Newcastle | Slattery K.M.,University of Newcastle | Slattery K.M.,New South Wales Institute of Sport | Dascombe B.J.,University of Newcastle
Medical Hypotheses | Year: 2015

Traditionally, researchers and practitioners have manipulated acute resistance exercise variables to elicit the desired responses to training. However, recent research indicates that altering the muscular environment during resistance training, namely by implementing a hypoxic stimulus, can augment muscle hypertrophy and strength. Intermittent hypoxic resistance training (IHRT), whereby participants inspire hypoxic air during resistance training, has been previously demonstrated to increase muscle cross-sectional area and maximum strength by significantly greater amounts than the equivalent training in normoxia. However, some recent evidence has provided conflicting results, reporting that the use of systemic hypoxia during resistance training provided no added benefit. While the definitive mechanisms that may augment muscular responses to IHRT are not yet fully understood, an increased metabolic stress is thought to be important for moderating many downstream processes related to hypertrophy. It is likely that methodological differences between conflicting IHRT studies have resulted in different degrees of metabolic stress during training, particularly when considering the inter-set recovery intervals used. Given that the most fundamental physiological stresses resulting from hypoxia are disturbances to oxidative metabolism, it becomes apparent that resistance training may only benefit from additional hypoxia if the exercise is structured to elicit a strong metabolic response. We hypothesize that for IHRT to be more effective in producing muscular hypertrophy and increasing strength than the equivalent normoxic training, exercise should be performed with relatively brief inter-set recovery periods, with the aim of providing a potent metabolic stimulus to enhance anabolic responses. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

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