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Crowcroft S.,University of Technology, Sydney | Duffield R.,University of Technology, Sydney | Mccleave E.,University of Technology, Sydney | Mccleave E.,The New South Wales Institute of Sport | And 3 more authors.
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports | Year: 2015

This study examined the association between monitoring tools, training loads, and performance in concurrent heat and hypoxia (H+H) compared with temperate training environments. A randomized parallel matched-group design involved 18 well-trained male cyclists. Participants performed 12 interval sessions (3 weeks) in either H+H (32±1°C, 50% RH, 16.6% O2 normobaric hypoxia) or control (21°C, 50% RH, 21% O2), followed by a seven-session taper (3 weeks; 21°C, 50% RH, 21% O2), while also maintaining external training (∼6-10h/week). A 20-km time trial (TT) was completed pre- and post-training block (21°C, 50% RH, 21% O2). Before each TT and once weekly, a 4-min cycle warm-up (70% 4-min mean maximum power) was completed. Visual analog scale rating for pain, recovery, and fatigue was recorded before the warm-up, with heart rate (HREx), heart rate recovery (HRR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPEWU) recorded following. Training load was quantified using the session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) method throughout. Overall TT improved 35±47s with moderate correlations to HRR (r=0.49) and recovery (r=-0.55). H+H group had a likely greater reduction in HREx [ES=-0.50 (90% CL) (-0.88; 0.12)] throughout and a greater sRPE (ES=1.20 [0.41; 1.99]), and reduction in HRR [ES=-0.37 (-0.70;-0.04)] through the overload. RPEWU was associated with weekly training load (r=0.37). These findings suggest that recovery and HRR in a temperate environment may be used as simple measures to identify an athlete's readiness to perform. Alternatively, the relationship of RPEWU and training load suggests that perception of effort following a standardized warm-up may be a valid measure when monitoring an athlete's training response, irrespective of the training environment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Walker C.,University of Sydney | Walker C.,The New South Wales Institute of Sport | Sinclair P.,University of Sydney | Graham K.,The New South Wales Institute of Sport | Cobley S.,University of Sydney
Sports Biomechanics | Year: 2016

Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) may offer an ecologically valid, reliable, and practical method for biomechanical performance analysis. With such potential in mind, Part 1 of this study examined the accuracy of IMUs gyroscopes with an optical system (Cortex 3.3). A calibration formula standardised the IMUs angular velocity output with the optical system. The percentage differences between the two measures = 0.5% (p < 0.05), suggest IMU’s efficacy for application. In Part 2, the aim was to examine and understand how dive flight angular velocity time series plots change and increase according to dive degree of difficulty. With IMUs attached to three competitive divers performing forward somersault dives, dive flight kinematics were assessed. Biomechanically, a 4½ tuck somersault dive differed to lower degree of difficulty dives in terms of: (1) a rotational delay immediately after takeoff (to gain greater vertical translation); (2) increased total time of flight; (3) greater muscle effort to resist increased centrifugal forces produced by the increased angular velocity (1,090 °/s); and (4) greater eccentric control during deceleration allow a safe and vertical entry into the water. IMUs can be effectively utilised and integrated into contexts such as springboard diving for performance analysis and optimisation purposes. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

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