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Albuquerque, NM, United States

Nakashima Y.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Mitsuhata Y.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Nishiwaki J.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Kawabe Y.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | And 2 more authors.
Water, Air, and Soil Pollution | Year: 2011

Non-destructive measurements of contaminated soil core samples are desirable prior to destructive measurements because they allow obtaining gross information from the core samples without touching harmful chemical species. Medical X-ray computed tomography (CT) and time-domain low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry were applied to non-destructive measurements of sandy soil core samples from a real site contaminated with heavy oil. The medical CT visualized the spatial distribution of the bulk density averaged over the voxel of 0.31∈×∈0.31∈×∈2 mm3. The obtained CT images clearly showed an increase in the bulk density with increasing depth. Coupled analysis with in situ time-domain reflectometry logging suggests that this increase is derived from an increase in the water volume fraction of soils with depth (i.e., unsaturated to saturated transition). This was confirmed by supplementary analysis using high-resolution micro-focus X-ray CT at a resolution of ∼10 μm, which directly imaged the increase in pore water with depth. NMR transverse relaxation waveforms of protons were acquired non-destructively at 2.7 MHz by the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom- Gill (CPMG) pulse sequence. The nature of viscous petroleum molecules having short transverse relaxation times (T2) compared to water molecules enabled us to distinguish the water-saturated portion from the oil-contaminated portion in the core sample using an M 0-T2 plot, where M 0 is the initial amplitude of the CPMG signal. The present study demonstrates that non-destructive core measurements by medical X-ray CT and low-field NMR provide information on the groundwater saturation level and oil-contaminated intervals, which is useful for constructing an adequate plan for subsequent destructive laboratory measurements of cores. © 2010 The Author(s).

Breindel A.,University of Rochester | Sun D.,New Mexico Resonance | Sen S.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2011

Sustained ability to absorb impulses at varied temperatures using light, hard materials and at length scales of few centimeters has been a challenge. The tapered chains while effective have been difficult to construct for applications. Here we build on Hong's granular protector concept to show that strong inertial mismatches due to alternate sets of few massive and light grains in elastically matched monosized granular alignments seem promising in absorbing impulses across millisecond time scales within a few centimeters. We propose a system which could find applications in the context of the construction and automobile industries, in combat, and elsewhere. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

Adolphi N.L.,University of New Mexico | Butler K.S.,University of New Mexico | Lovato D.M.,University of New Mexico | Tessier T.E.,LLC LLC | And 12 more authors.
Contrast Media and Molecular Imaging | Year: 2012

Both magnetic relaxometry and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to detect and locate targeted magnetic nanoparticles, noninvasively and without ionizing radiation. Magnetic relaxometry offers advantages in terms of its specificity (only nanoparticles are detected) and the linear dependence of the relaxometry signal on the number of nanoparticles present. In this study, detection of single-core iron oxide nanoparticles by superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID)-detected magnetic relaxometry and standard 4.7 T MRI are compared. The nanoparticles were conjugated to a Her2 monoclonal antibody and targeted to Her2-expressing MCF7/Her2-18 (breast cancer cells); binding of the nanoparticles to the cells was assessed by magnetic relaxometry and iron assay. The same nanoparticle-labeled cells, serially diluted, were used to assess the detection limits and MR relaxivities. The detection limit of magnetic relaxometry was 125 000 nanoparticle-labeled cells at 3cm from the SQUID sensors. T2-weighted MRI yielded a detection limit of 15 600 cells in a 150μl volume, with r1=1.1mm-1s-1 and r2=166mm-1s-1. Her2-targeted nanoparticles were directly injected into xenograft MCF7/Her2-18 tumors in nude mice, and magnetic relaxometry imaging and 4.7T MRI were performed, enabling direct comparison of the two techniques. Co-registration of relaxometry images and MRI of mice resulted in good agreement. A method for obtaining accurate quantification of microgram quantities of iron in the tumors and liver by relaxometry was also demonstrated. These results demonstrate the potential of SQUID-detected magnetic relaxometry imaging for the specific detection of breast cancer and the monitoring of magnetic nanoparticle-based therapies. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 235.37K | Year: 2004

DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Lung career in the United States is one of the leading causes of death, with 177,000 new cases yearly, resulting in a death rate of 158,000 people per year (1,2). There are more deaths from lung cancer than from prostate, breast and colorectal cancers combined. Unfortunately, the vast majority of lung tumors re clinically silent until the disease is terminal. Since early diagnosis can increase survival of lung cancer patients by up to 85%, new diagnostic methods are urgently needed. We propose to develop novel, high-sensitivity imaging of magnetic nanoparticles to provide specific diagnostic images of early lung tumors and potential distant metastases. Exciting recent developments in giant magnetostrictive (GMS) or magnetic shape memory (MSM) materials have led to the possibility of developing small, low-cost, room-temperature, portable, high-sensitive, fiber-optic sensors capable of robustly detecting magnetic nanopadicles, without direct contact with the skin. Magnetic nanoparticles will be conjugated with antibodies, which will target them to lung tumors. However, the technical challenges associated with developing GMS or MSM materials into deployable biomagnetic sensor arrays remain to be addressed. This Phase I proposal seeks to develop a working sensor array capable of detecting the magnetic signals produced by these nanoparticles in the lung. Therefore, overall the aim of the present proposal is: The construction, calibration and demonstration on of a prototype fiber-optic biomagnetic sensor array, based on giant magnetostrictive or magnetic shape memory materials, with the requisite sensitivity to image the magnetic signals generated by antibody-labeled magnetic nanoparticles in lung tumors.

Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 167.18K | Year: 2007

DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): We propose to develop compact magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems for imaging lungs as well as other soft tissue in live laboratory animals based on permanent magnets that are reasonably priced and easy to maintain. Such imagers will benefit public health by improving laboratory animal research. Unlike other soft tissues, lungs are difficult to image with MRI because the signal decays rapidly. However, good MRI will allow serial progression studies of diseases and treatment of live animals, eliminating the need to use a large number of animals. Furthermore, the statistics of the results will be more reliable in serial over parallel studies. New Mexico Resonance, the research institution of this proposal, has perfected the technique to make high resolution images of in vivo lungs using a large 1.9T superconducting magnet based MRI system. There are many reasons for wishing to perform small animal lung imaging in animal facilities rather than in MRI facilities. There are quarantine issues associated with not wanting to take animals out and bring them back into the animal facility. Furthermore, the animal researchers can make measurements at will. ABQMR, the submitting company, together with New Mexico Resonance, has worked with MRTechnology, a Japanese company specializing in permanent magnet based MRI. These MRI systems perform standard imaging capably and are compact, low cost, and maintenance free. This proposal will combine the technical expertise of lung imaging by New Mexico Resonance with the permanent magnet technology being used by ABQMR. The Phase I goal is to obtain high resolution in vivo pulmonary MRI with a compact permanent magnet. In Phase II, we will integrate the permanent magnet with compact electronics to create a prototype small animal imaging system.

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