New Mexico Highlands University and Los Alamos National Security Llc | Date: 2014-09-15
A process for synthesizing 4-amino-2,4-dioxobutanoic acid involves reacting diethyl oxalate with an alkoxide in ethanol to form a reaction mixture, and afterward adding ethyl cyanoacetate to the reaction mixture and allowing a reaction to proceed under conditions suitable to form a first reaction product of the formula diethyl 2-cyano-3-hydroxy-butenedioate, and then isolating the diethyl 2-cyano-3-hydroxy-butenedioate, and afterward reacting the diethyl-2-cyano-3-hydroxy-butenedioate with an aqueous hydroxide under conditions suitable to form 4-amino-2,4-dioxobutanoic acid.
New Mexico Highlands University and Los Alamos National Security LLC | Date: 2014-09-17
A first process for synthesizing 4-amino-2,4-dioxobutanoate involves reacting a dialkyl oxalate with an alkoxide in ethanol to form a reaction mixture, and afterward adding an alkyl cyanoacetate to the reaction mixture and allowing a reaction to proceed under conditions suitable to form a first reaction product of the formula diethyl 2-cyano-3-hydroxy-butenedioate, and then isolating the diethyl 2-cyano-3-hydroxy-butenedioate, and afterward reacting the diethyl-2-cyano-3-hydroxy-butenedioate with an aqueous hydroxide under conditions suitable to form 4-amino-2,4-dioxobutanoate. A second process for synthesizing 4-amino-2,4-dioxobutanoate involves reacting a dialkyl oxalate with an alkoxide in ethanol to form a reaction mixture, and afterward adding acetonitrile to the reaction mixture and allowing a reaction to proceed under conditions suitable to form a first reaction product in the form of an alkali salt of the formula ethyl 3-cyano-2-oxopropenolate, and then isolating the ethyl 3-cyano-2-oxopropenolate , and afterward either (a) reacting the ethyl 3-cyano-2-oxopropenolate with an aqueous hydroxide under conditions suitable to form 4-amino-2,4-dioxobutanoate; or (b) reacting the ethyl 3-cyano-2-oxopropenolate with hydrogen peroxide and ion exchange resin under conditions suitable to form 4-amino-2,4-dioxobutanoate. In these processes, the 4-amino-2,4-dioxobutanoate may be acidified into 4-amino-2,4-dioxobutanoic acid.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: MAJOR RESEARCH INSTRUMENTATION | Award Amount: 50.16K | Year: 2013
This Major Research Instrumentation (MRI) Program grant supports acquisition of an automated susceptibility core logging system and a field free-space. The equipment will support a range of paleoclimatological investigations on core material already collected from the Central High Plain aquifer and regional paleosols and modern soils. The equipment will complement existing paleomagnetic equipment at this minority serving undergraduate institution and support student experiential learning with modern techniques in paleomagnetic analysis and data interpretation.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: MAJOR RESEARCH INSTRUMENTATION | Award Amount: 523.84K | Year: 2016
This Major Research Instrumentation (MRI) grant supports acquisition of a superconducting rock magnetometer (SRM) equipped with an in-line alternating field demagnetizer and automated sample handling system for the Department of Natural Sciences at New Mexico Highlands University (NMHU). The SRM will complement extant paleo and rock magnetic analytical equipment at NMHU and will serve as a state and regional facility for investigation for the magnetic properties of natural materials. The facility will support multiple national and international collaborative science projects. This support is congruent with NSFs mission of promoting the progress of science and advancing the national health, prosperity and welfare given the importance of training underrepresented students in methods of analysis and scientific research. NMHU is a primarily undergraduate and Hispanic Serving Institution and the investigator has a strong track record of engaging undergraduates student in laboratory and field research. Many of the students at NMHU are first-generation college students.
The new SRM will support a wide range of research and research training applications requiring the ability to determine the magnetic remanence of often weakly magnetized materials , including studies of crustal deformation processes based on paleomagnetic and rock magnetic fabric analysis, studies of past climate conditions based on paleomagnetic proxies, paleomagnetic investigations of shallow crustal magma emplacement processes, investigation of the timing of deposition of important continental aquifers, and the timing and extent of Neoproterozoic cap carbonates indicative of past global glaciation events.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: S-STEM:SCHLR SCI TECH ENG&MATH | Award Amount: 414.09K | Year: 2012
The Achieving in Research, Mathematics and Science (ARMAS) Scholarship Program provides $10,000 per year for up to a three-year period to three cohorts of four New Mexico Highlands undergraduates majoring in biology, chemistry, environmental geology or forestry. The financial support will enable students to work off-campus less and focus on attending school full-time during the last years of their studies. Integrated with financial support, students receive enhanced academic and career support services, faculty mentorship, and peer support. Each semester the ARMAS scholars participate in an interdisciplinary, problem-based seminar that incorporates the acquisition of skills required of scientists - how to pose questions, delve into the existing literature, design experiments, find collaborators, use new instruments, develop protocols, collect and analyze data, and summarize and present results. Throughout the scholarship period, guidance is provided to ensure a smooth transition into a career or graduate program in their field. NMHU is an open enrollment institution serving a large rural population characterized by diverse cultural, economic, linguistic, and educational backgrounds. The ARMAS Scholarship Program addresses the needs of these students and the NSF S-STEM goals by improving educational opportunities and increasing retention for STEM students, consequently addressing retention and graduation rates in the biology, forestry, environmental geology and chemistry disciplines at a Hispanic-Serving Institution in rural northern New Mexico.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: INSTRUMENTATION & FACILITIES | Award Amount: 43.64K | Year: 2016
This grant supports the acquisition of a research-grade petrographic microscope (Nikon LV100) with an automatic point counter stepping stage and PETROG software to enable examination of thin sections. The requested microscope will support teaching in structural geology, sedimentology, and mineralogy courses by allowing photographic documentation and storage of thin section and grain separate images. This microscope will also support existing paleomagnetic, mineralogy, petrology, and tectonic research at New Mexico Highland University.
The ability to examine thin sections with transmitted and reflected light is fundamental in rock and mineral characterizations. The microscopic images and the textural analyses obtained can provide important information to aid the determination of formation history, which is crucial in the study of structural geology, volcanology, and paleomagnetic research. The microscope will be open to regional, national and international collaborators. This equipment will facilitate the training of a diverse undergraduate and M.S. student body at this Hispanic Serving Institution as well as at surrounding institutions. This support is congruent with NSF?s mission of promoting the progress of science and will advance the national prosperity and welfare especially through the training of the next generations of scientists.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: Catalyzing New Intl Collab | Award Amount: 27.11K | Year: 2014
This award for Catalyzing New International Collaborations(CNIC) provides the PI, Michael Petronis, and two U.S. graduate students from New Mexico Highlands University with an opportunity to travel to the Czech Republic (CR) and initiate a collaboration with partners from the Czech Geological Survey and the Czech Academy of Sciences Institute of Rock Structures and Mechanisms. Together the U.S.-Czech team will examine the growth of ancient volcanoes in the Jièín Volcanic Field, CR, and compare those volcanoes to ones in northern New Mexico. Their goal is to derive new paradigms for understanding the development of small volcanoes, known as cinder cones, which are the most common terrestrial volcanic feature on Earth. Through laboratory studies and field research at two or more Czech volcanic sites, the US-Czech team intends to test common models of small volcano construction that treat the magma feeder system as a simple dike or pipe-like conduit that transports magma vertically from a reservoir to the eruptive vent. Their alternative hypothesis maintains that feeder geometries beneath these apparently simple exteriors are considerably more complex. This catalytic effort is expected to establish essential ground work for follow-on cooperative research and applications to NSF-Tectonics and NSF-Petrology and Geochemistry programs with the parallel goal of involving under-represented U.S. students in futue field and laboraroty aspects of such projects, thereby contributing to the next generation of geoscientists, with early career international research experience.
If successful, new preliminary data should assist with defining the evolution of the anticipated, more complex magma feeder system, specifically, one that involves multiple, time-transgressive injections beneath the cone with magma transported vertically upward and downward and laterally toward and away from the central vent conduit. The team hypothesizes that magma supply rate (e.g., pulsed versus continuous), magma pressure as well as magma composition, influence the subvolcanic construction geometries and edifice deformation. Their field methods will include primary field observations of eruption products, deposit characteristics, and structural measurements, as well as sample collection. Laboratory methods are to include thin section petrology, paleomagnetic, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility analysis, and geophysical surveys to map the subsurface structure. The new data obtained during these activities in partnership with Czech colleagues will enable preliminary assessments of magmatic flow patterns, sub-volcanic deformation (microstructures and paleomagnetism), and the subsurface structure of the volcanoes (geophysics). If the Czech Republic volcanoes yield results and data similar to that from sites previously studied by the PI, then the U.S.-Czech team maintains that this pattern of magma flow beneath small volcanoes may be established as a new norm, potentially transforming our fundamental understanding of the most abundant volcanic construct on Earth.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Continuing grant | Program: | Phase: PREM | Award Amount: 1.32M | Year: 2015
To improve educational and research opportunities in the Hispanic serving (~70% Hispanic student body) New Mexico Highlands University (NMHU) collaborative project between NMHU and Ohio State University (OSU) was developed. This multi-institutional and multidisciplinary project allows for achieving a higher level of understanding of materials design in areas of electronic, optical and magnetic properties. Faculty in physics, engineering, chemistry and geology with strong expertise in a broad area of materials science will be able to assist students, especially from underrepresented groups, to enter into state-of-the-art materials research via research related education. The NMHU-OSU partnership will systematically impact undergraduate, graduate, postgraduate students and faculty at all partner institutions. In New Mexico, at the high school level, PREM will use the dual credit and Achieving in Research, Mathematics and Science (ARMAS) Center to encourage and engage students in science education programs at the High Schools. At NMHU in collaboration with OSU, two new materials science courses devoted to an in-depth understanding of materials structure and magnetic properties of materials will be designed. OSU experts will visit to deliver guest lectures and special community high-tech seminars accompanied by lively PREM receptions to encourage mixing of high school and university students and faculty. Undergraduates from NMHU will be invited to perform hands-on research projects at OSU Research Experience for Undergraduate (REU) summer program. For master?s level students one semester of study at OSU will be offered to promote their future admission into PhD programs at OSU or other research universities. The existing PREM and OSU partnership with Los Alamos and Argonne National Laboratory will allow for NMHU student summer internships. It is in New Mexicos and the nations best interests to train young residents to qualify for home-grown jobs that require expertise in various fields of technology.
The main goals of the proposed partnership led by Prof. Timofeeva (NMHU) and Prof. Johnston-Halperin (OSU) will include understanding the principles of materials design, synthesis, and applications in areas of materials with electronic, optical and magnetic properties. A new approach to materials design and crystal engineering will allow for the combination of two or more components in one crystalline material which brings significant alteration of electronic properties of multi-component systems. Construction of new porous metalorganic frameworks, which can be doped with magnetic particles, will allow for creation of new sensors, drug delivery systems, magnetic-based cooling systems, and other applications. Collaboration with OSU will allow NMHU researchers and students to start new for NMHU area of materials science related to 2D graphene and its varieties, modified by absorbed metal nanoparticles. These fundamental studies will suggest pathways for future applications of such materials. Collaborative use OSU and NMHU existing research facilities will broaden opportunities for multidisciplinary research training. The research results of the NMHU-OSU PREM partnership will be disseminated via publications in peer reviewed journals and presented at domestic and international conferences. PREM will open the door for young people interested in gaining a foothold in areas of study that are directly relevant to the research interests and needs of the state and nation.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: MAJOR RESEARCH INSTRUMENTATION | Award Amount: 384.93K | Year: 2013
This Major Research Instrumentation (MRI) Program grant supports the acquisition of an optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and thermoluminescence reader and associated gamma ray spectrometer to support research and undergraduate education at New Mexico Highlands University, a non-Ph.D granting institution. The OSL lab at NMHU will support research that will benefit from the ability to date the burial ages of silicate phases in geological and archaeological materials up to several hundreds of thousands years before present. The instrument will support Quaternary investigations of the timing and extent of past glaciations and subsequent retreat and the influence of past climate on plant and animal life and human evolution and distribution. The OSL lab will be the first of its kind in the state of New Mexico and will support experiential laboratory training for a student population dominated by Hispanic students. The NMHU OSL lab will serve researchers and students across the departments of Forestry, Environmental Geology, Chemistry, Biology, and Anthropology and will support national and international collaborations.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: TECTONICS | Award Amount: 154.42K | Year: 2013
Modern deformation between the North American and Pacific plates is distributed across a wide zone of western North America from the San Andreas fault eastward into the western Basin and Range Province. The eastern Mojave Desert and the region between the Sierra Nevada and Great Basin form a zone of distributed deformation that accommodates about 25 percent of the relative motion between the Pacific and North American plates. Deformation to the south is localized within the Eastern California Shear Zone and to the north in the Walker Lane Belt, which today is characterized by northwest-trending faults with associated earthquake focal mechanisms and GPS velocities that are indicative of transtensional deformation. This project tests the hypothesis that deformation associated with the transtensional system during the early to mid-Miocene was located east of the Sierra Nevada front in the area of the Mono Basin prior to stepping east into the Mina Deflection in the late Miocene. To do so the research team is carrying out a detailed paleomagnetic study of the Oligocene to Pliocene mafic to intermediate lava flows, rhyolitic ignimbrites, sediments in the Mono Basin area (Huntoon Valley, Adobe Hills, Antelope Mountains, Cowtrack Mountains) to determine the spatial and temporal patterns of vertical axis rotation. Field structural studies coupled with 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of volcanic and intrusive rocks are used to constrain the fault geometry, kinematics, magnitude of fault slip, and the timing of deformation.
The Eastern California Shear Zone and Walker Lane Belt, a zone that stretches from the Mojave Desert to northern California/northwestern Nevada, are important fault systems that accommodate a substantial portion of the motion of between the North American and Pacific plates, with most of the motion taken up by the San Andreas fault. However, the tectonic evolution of this complex fault zone remains poorly understood. This project aims to resolve an important part of the puzzle in that it would contribute to a better understanding of how deformation shifts through time. The project has a significant component of student involvement. Improving students technological and basic science skill-sets will train and foster research endeavors for minority and underrepresented students.