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Clogher P.,Yale University | Hurd S.,Yale University | Hoefer D.,New York State Department of Health | Hadler J.L.,Yale University | And 6 more authors.
Clinical Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012

Background.Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections cause acute diarrheal illness and sometimes life-threatening hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Escherichia coli O157 is the most common STEC, although the number of reported non-O157 STEC infections is growing with the increased availability and use of enzyme immunoassay testing, which detects the presence of Shiga toxin in stool specimens. Prompt and accurate diagnosis of STEC infection facilitates appropriate therapy and may improve patient outcomes.Methods.We mailed 2400 surveys to physicians in 8 Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) sites to assess their knowledge and practices regarding STEC testing, treatment, and reporting, and their interpretation of Shiga toxin test results.Results.Of 1102 completed surveys, 955 were included in this analysis. Most (83%) physicians reported often or always ordering a culture of bloody stool specimens; 49% believed that their laboratory routinely tested for STEC O157, and 30% believed that testing for non-O157 STEC was also included in a routine stool culture. Forty-two percent of physicians were aware that STEC, other than O157, can cause HUS, and 34% correctly interpreted a positive Shiga toxin test result. All STEC knowledge-related factors were strongly associated with correct interpretation of a positive Shiga toxin test result.Conclusions. Identification and management of STEC infection depends on laboratories testing for STEC and physicians ordering and correctly interpreting results of Shiga toxin tests. Although overall knowledge of STEC was low, physicians who had more knowledge were more likely to correctly interpret a Shiga toxin test result. Physician knowledge of STEC may be modifiable through educational interventions. © 2012 The Author. Source

Gould L.H.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Mody R.K.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Ong K.L.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Clogher P.,Connecticut Emerging Infections Program | And 7 more authors.
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease | Year: 2013

Background: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are an important cause of diarrhea and the major cause of postdiarrheal hemolytic uremic syndrome. Non-O157 STEC infections are being recognized with greater frequency because of changing laboratory practices. Methods: Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) site staff conducted active, population-based surveillance for laboratory-confirmed STEC infections. We assessed frequency and incidence of STEC infections by serogroup and examined and compared demographic factors, clinical characteristics, and frequency of international travel among patients. Results: During 2000-2010, FoodNet sites reported 2006 cases of non-O157 STEC infection and 5688 cases of O157 STEC infections. The number of reported non-O157 STEC infections increased from an incidence of 0.12 per 100,000 population in 2000 to 0.95 per 100,000 in 2010; while the rate of O157 STEC infections decreased from 2.17 to 0.95 per 100,000. Among non-O157 STEC, six serogroups were most commonly reported: O26 (26%), O103 (22%), O111 (19%), O121 (6%), O45 (5%), and O145 (4%). Non-O157 STEC infections were more common among Hispanics, and infections were less severe than those caused by O157 STEC, but this varied by serogroup. Fewer non-O157 STEC infections were associated with outbreaks (7% versus 20% for O157), while more were associated with international travel (14% versus 3% for O157). Conclusions: Improved understanding of the epidemiologic features of non-O157 STEC infections can inform food safety and other prevention efforts. To detect both O157 and non-O157 STEC infections, clinical laboratories should routinely and simultaneously test all stool specimens submitted for diagnosis of acute community-acquired diarrhea for O157 STEC and for Shiga toxin and ensure that isolates are sent to a public health laboratory for serotyping and subtyping. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

Luna-Gierke R.E.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Wymore K.,California Emerging Infections Program | Clogher P.,Connecticut Emerging Infections Program | Gierke R.W.,Veterans Affairs Medical Center | And 4 more authors.
Zoonoses and Public Health | Year: 2014

Summary: We describe multiple-aetiology infections involving non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) identified through laboratory-based surveillance in nine FoodNet sites from 2001 to 2010. A multiple-aetiology infection (MEI) was defined as isolation of non-O157 STEC and laboratory evidence of any of the other nine pathogens under surveillance or isolation of >1 non-O157 STEC serogroup from the same person within a 7-day period. We compared exposures of patients with MEI during 2001-2010 with those of patients with single-aetiology non-O157 STEC infections (SEI) during 2008-2009 and with those of the FoodNet population from a survey conducted during 2006-2007. In total, 1870 non-O157 STEC infections were reported; 68 (3.6%) were MEI; 60 included pathogens other than non-O157 STEC; and eight involved >1 serogroup of non-O157 STEC. Of the 68 MEI, 21 (31%) were part of six outbreaks. STEC O111 was isolated in 44% of all MEI. Of patients with MEI, 50% had contact with farm animals compared with 29% (P < 0.01) of persons with SEI; this difference was driven by infections involving STEC O111. More patients with non-outbreak-associated MEI reported drinking well water (62%) than respondents in a population survey (19%) (P < 0.01). Drinking well water and having contact with animals may be important exposures for MEI, especially those involving STEC O111. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source

Mody R.K.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Luna-Gierke R.E.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Hurd S.,Connecticut Emerging Infections Program | Lathrop S.,New Mexico Emerging Infections Program | And 5 more authors.
Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine | Year: 2012

Objective: To describe pathogens identified through routine clinical practice and factors associated with identifying Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infection in patients with postdiarrheal hemolytic uremic syndrome (D+HUS). Design : Population-based active surveillance. Setting: Hospitals in the FoodNet surveillance areas from 2000 through 2010. Participants : Children younger than 18 years with D+HUS. Main Exposures: Testing for STEC and demographic and clinical characteristics. Main Outcome Measures: Percentage of patients with evidence of infection with likely HUS-causing agents and associations between exposures and evidence of STEC infection. Results: Of 617 patients, 436 (70.7%) had evidence of infection with likely HUS-causing agents: STEC O157 (401 patients), non-O157 STEC (21 patients), O157 and non-O157 STEC (1 patient), Streptococcus pneumoniae (11 patients), and other pathogens (2 patients). Among patients without microbiological evidence of STEC, 76.9% of those tested had serologic evidence of STEC infection. Children more likely to have evidence of STEC infections included those patients tested for STEC less than 4 days after diarrhea onset, 12 months or older (71.6% vs 27.8% if <12 months of age), with infections as part of an outbreak (94.3% vs 67.3%), with bloody diarrhea (77.2% vs 40.4%), with onset during June through September (76.9% vs 60.1%), with a leukocyte count greater than 18 000/μL (to convert to X109/L, multiply by 0.001) (75.7% vs 65.3%), or with only moderate anemia (hemoglobin >7.0 g/dL [to convert to grams per liter, multiply by 10] or hematocrit greater than 20% [to convert to a proportion of 1, multiply by 0.01]) (75.1% vs 66.3%). However, many of these associations were weaker among children with thorough STEC testing. Conclusions: Early stool collection for E coli O157 culture and Shiga toxin testing of all children with possible bacterial enteric infection will increase detection of STEC strains causing HUS. In the absence of microbiological evidence of STEC, serologic testing should be performed. ©2012 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Source

Haley C.C.,Workforce and Career Development | Ong K.L.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Ong K.L.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Hedberg K.,Office of Disease Prevention and Epidemiology | And 9 more authors.
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease | Year: 2010

Background: An estimated 450,000 cases of shigellosis occur annually in the United States. Outbreaks have been associated with food, water, child daycare centers, and men who have sex with men. However, for sporadic infections, which account for the majority of cases, risk exposures are poorly characterized. Methods: Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) conducts active, laboratory-based shigellosis surveillance in 10 US sites. We interviewed cases with illness onset during 2005 about exposures during the week before symptom onset using a standardized questionnaire. The proportion of patients who denied nonfood risks was used to estimate the burden attributable to foodborne transmission. Results: Overall, 1494 cases were identified. The approximate incidence was 3.9/100,000, with the highest rates among children aged 1-4 years (16.4) and Hispanics (8.4). Of the 929 cases interviewed, 223 (24%) reported international travel in the week before symptom onset. Of the 626 nontraveling cases with complete risk factor information, 298 (48%) reported exposure to daycare or a household member with diarrhea; 99 (16%) reported drinking untreated water or recreational exposure to water; and 16 (3%) reported sexual contact with a person with diarrhea. Two hundred and fifty-nine (41%) denied all nonfood exposures examined. Conclusions: Sporadic shigellosis is most common among young children and Hispanics. Common exposures include international travel and contact with ill persons or daycare. However, more than one-third of US shigellosis cases annually might be due to food consumed in the United States. © 2010, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

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