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News Article | May 17, 2017

Revamped Liberian miner Avesoro Resources (LN:AUE) could take on two of its parent company’s other mining holdings in Africa. Avesoro (the former Aureus Mining) has confirmed it buy two projects from its private owner, Avesoro Holdings, which is itself part of the Turkish MNG Group. Avesoro said it was looking at the Youga gold mine and Balogo deposit in Burkina Faso. While the deal would be between Avesoro and its 73.5% majority owner, any acquisition would need minority shareholder and regulatory approval, the company said. MNG Group offshoot MNG Gold bought Endeavour Mining’s (CN:EDV) 90% share of Youga for around US$25 million in early 2016. MNG bought it as a working mine, although production was slated to drop from 68,000 ounces of gold in 2015 to around 40,000oz in 2016. The company bought Balogo in 2015 for $10 million in cash, although the $3 million set aside for when commercial production began was paid out early to seller Golden Rim Resources (AU:GMR) when delays hit. Avesoro got New Liberty gold mine in Liberia producing consistently after a torrid few years. In the March quarter, it produced 14,906oz but at an all-in sustaining cost of $1,488/oz. Avesoro’s price was flat at $0.028 per share following the announcement.

Ioannides Y.M.,Tufts University | Topa G.,New Liberty
Journal of Regional Science | Year: 2010

The paper addresses the empirical significance of the social context in economic decisions. Decisions of individuals who share spatial and social milieus are likely to be interdependent, and econometric identification of social effects poses intricate data and methodological problems, including dealing with self-selection in spatial and social groups. It uses a simple empirical framework to introduce social interactions effects at different levels of aggregation, and examines estimation problems in linear models, the impact of self-selection and of nonlinearities. It also examines neighborhood effects in job matching and proposes a research agenda that offers new techniques and data sources. © 2010, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Adams D.S.,New Liberty
Scandinavian Economic History Review | Year: 2015

This paper analyses contemporary perceptions of the First World War in order to identify which historical events were considered turning points in the war effort by actors at the time. Using a new data-set of daily prices of French war debt issued and traded in London, it looks for structural breaks in the time series using a four-step rolling windows algorithm. The data confirm that contemporary actors reacted strongly to some events considered to be less relevant by historians, such as the Battles of Jutland and Caporetto, and did not significantly react to other events generally considered by historians to be turning points for the war effort, such as the German Michael Offensive, the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare. The analysis indicates that contemporary views of turning points in the war differed significantly from those in ex post historical accounts, indicating that the relative importance placed on certain events by historians might not reflect the views held by contemporary financial and political actors. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

Haughwout A.F.,New Liberty
Journal of Regional Science | Year: 2010

Metropolitan areas (MSAs) are the location of the great majority of economic activity in the United States, and the largest produce a disproportionate share of output. It is thus critical for the economy's long-term growth that large cities operate efficiently. In this paper, we briefly review the sources of productivity growth in cities. We then discuss the costs and benefits of political decentralization in large MSAs. After documenting the interdependence of the suburbs and central cities in large MSA, we develop a model that embodies many of the empirically verified aspects, including agglomeration economies and public goods. After calibrating the model to actual outcomes in a representative city, we simulate the effects of various kinds of fiscal redistributions. We conclude that, under the model, some kinds of fiscal redistributions can provide benefits in both cities and suburbs. © 2010, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

This paper examines the impact of conventional and unconventional monetary policy on energy prices using an event study with intraday data. Three measures for monetary policy surprises are used: 1) the surprise change to the current federal funds target rate, 2) the surprise component to the future path of policy, and 3) the unanticipated announcement of future large-scale asset purchases (LSAP). Estimation results show that monetary policy surprises have economically important and highly significant effects on the level and volatility of energy futures prices and their trading volumes. I find that, on average, a hypothetical unanticipated 100-basis-point hike in the federal funds target rate is associated with roughly a 3% decrease in West Texas Intermediate crude oil prices. I also document that, in a narrow window around the FOMC meeting, the Federal Reserve's LSAP1 and LSAP2 programs have a cumulative financial market impact on crude oil equivalent to an unanticipated cut in the federal funds target rate of 156 basis points. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

The insurers of the security of systems at the largest global companies see the large consumers of IT services as the most concerned about security in the supply chain. Concerns in the private sector naturally go beyond national boundaries especially among those companies that operate across borders. Among the consumers of IT products and services, it is the largest and most established companies with the strongest market positions and the most to lose if systems fail that are leading the movement towards more robust testing and measurement of the cyber supply chain. The Russian government has had technology certification requirements but has only recently initiated the National Software Platform effort based on open-source and Russian proprietary software. The aim of the platform is both to ensure national security by increasing technological independence and to grow the development of domestic IT products so that it can become a technology services exporter.

Surya N.,New Liberty
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology | Year: 2015

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic progressive disease which is one of the leading causes of handicap in young subjects. The large range of symptoms associated with MS lead to continuing decline in neurologic status and quality of life. The coexistence of physical and cognitive impairments, together with the imprevisible evolution of the disease makes MS rehabilitation very challenging. The main objective of rehabilitation is, therefore, to ease the burden of symptoms by improving self-performance and independence. Inpatient, outpatient and Home rehabilitation with multidisciplinary team has been shown to be beneficial in improving disability. Individualized programs elaborated by a multidisciplinary team of experts are the key to success of rehabilitation. Family plays a big role and Family Based Rehabilitation will be important in long term rehab program in MS. © 2006 - 2015 Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow.

New Liberty | Date: 2016-01-25

Medallions; Medals and medallions; Precious metals, namely, silver; Precious metals, namely, gold; Precious metals, namely, platinum.

News Article | March 29, 2015

Nathan Jessop is an analyst at Elliptic, a full-service Bitcoin custodian for investment funds and trading houses. Since 2008, bitcoin adoption has been influenced by a diverse range of factors that have made it one of the most volatile currencies in the world. Yet, despite such volatility, more than 100,000 bitcoin transactions are taking place per day and the volume continues to grow due to the ‘permissionless innovation’ provided by bitcoin’s underlying technology, the blockchain. As the blockchain matures, bitcoin will increasingly resemble traditional financial services, with functions such as retail banking (Circle), exchanges (Coinbase) and payment processors (bitnet) being created. But how did it all start off, and where will it go next? Here, we take a brief overview of the major milestones in the cryptocurrency’s brief history and look to where it might be headed in the future. Three individuals, Neal Kin, Vladimir Oksman, and Charles Bry file an application for an encryption patent application. All three individuals deny having any connection to Satoshi Nakamoto, the alleged originator of the Bitcoin concept. The three also register the site in the same month, over on – which allows people to buy domain names anonymously. Despite the above, Satoshi Nakamoto releases his white paper, revealing his idea for a purely peer-to-peer version of electronic cash to the world. In his vision, he manages to solve the problem of money being copied, providing a vital foundation for Bitcoin to grow legitimately. The first block, nicknamed ‘Genesis’ is launched allowing the initial ‘mining’ of Bitcoins to take place. Later that month, the first transaction takes place between Satoshi and Hal Finney, a developer and cryptographic activist. Bitcoin receives an equivalent value in traditional currencies. The New Liberty Standard established the value of a Bitcoin at $1 = 1,309 BTC. The equation was derived so as to include the cost of electricity to run the computer that created the Bitcoins in the first place. The world’s first Bitcoin market is established by the now defunct dwdollar. A programmer living in Florida named Laslo Hanyecz sends 10,000BTC to a volunteer in England, who spent about $25 to order Hanyecz a pizza from Papa John’s. Today that pizza is valued at £1,961,034 and stands as a major milestone in Bitcoin’s history. Bitcoin is hacked. A vulnerability in how the system verifies the value of Bitcoin is discovered, leading to the generation of 184 billion Bitcoins. The value of the currency – from a high of $0.80 to $1 in June drops through the floor. Bitcoin goes under the spotlight. After the hack in August – and a subsequent discovery of other vulnerabilities in the blockchain in September – an inter-governmental group publishes a report on money laundering using new payment methods. Bitcoin, it suggested could help people finance terrorist groups. Bitcoin reaches $1 million. Based on the number of Bitcoins in circulation at the time, the valuation leads to a surge in Bitcoin value to $0.50/BTC. The Silk Road, an illicit drugs marketplace is established, using Bitcoin as an untraceable way to buy and sell drugs online. Bitcoin reaches parity with the US dollar for the first time. By June each Bitcoin is worth $31 giving the currency a market cap of $206 million. The first major theft takes place. Bitcoin Forum founder allinvain reports having 25,000 BTC taken from his digital wallet, which had an equivalent value of $375,000. In the same month, a major breach of security sees the value of the currency go from $17.51 to $0.01 per Bitcoin. ​The US Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FINCEN) issues some of the world’s first bitcoin regulation in the form of a guidance report for persons administering, exchanging or using virtual currency. This marked the beginning of an ongoing debate on how best to regulate bitcoin. Federal Judge Mazzant claims: “It is clear that Bitcoin can be used as money” and “It can be used to purchase goods or services” in a case against Trendon Shavers, the so-called ‘Bernie Madoff of bitcoin’. Bloomberg begins testing bitcoin data on its terminal. Although alternative tickers exist, endorsement from Bloomberg gives bitcoin more institutional legitimacy. Bitcoin price climbs to $700 in as the US Senate holds its first hearings on the digital currency. The Federal Reserve chairman at the time, Ben Bernanke, gives his blessing to bitcoin. In his letter to the Senate homeland security and government affairs committee, Bernanke states that bitcoin “may hold long-term promise, particularly if the innovations promote a faster, more secure and more efficient payment system”. China’s central bank bars financial institutions from handling bitcoin transactions. This ban was issued after the People’s Bank of China said bitcoin is not a currency with “real meaning” and does not have the same legal status as fiat currency. The ban reflects the risk bitcoin poses to China’s capital controls and financial stability. Today China remains the world’s biggest bitcoin trader, with 80% of global bitcoin transactions being processed in China. Bitcoin custodians Elliptic launch the world’s first insured bitcoin storage service for institutional clients. All deposits are comprehensively insured by a Fortune 100 insurer and held in full reserve. This means Elliptic never re-invests client assets; instead they secure them in deep cold storage. becomes the first major online retailer to embrace bitcoin, accepting payments in the US. Overstock was the first in what is now an expeditiously growing list of large businesses that accept bitcoin. HMRC classifies bitcoin as assets or private money, meaning that no VAT will be charged on the mining or exchange of bitcoin. This is important as it is the world’s first and most progressive treatment of bitcoin, positioning the UK government as the most forward thinking and comprehensive with regard to bitcoin taxation. The US government auctions off more than 29,000 bitcoins seized from the Silk Road, the illegal online marketplace. The sale and closure of the marketplace marks growing institutional understanding of the potential use cases of bitcoin. Additionally, the closure and auction of the Silk Road has helped bitcoin gain legitimacy as it demonstrates that bitcoin is not an easy way for online criminals to avoid the rule of law. From this point onwards bitcoin can no longer be considered as a currency for criminals. The use of the bitcoin blockchain means that the identity of users can often be established. The ‘Bit Licence’ edges towards reality as the New York State Department of Financial Services releases the first draft of the agency’s proposed rules for regulating virtual currencies. The European Banking Authority publishes its opinion on ‘virtual currencies’. Their analytical report recommends that EU legislators consider declaring virtual currency exchanges as ‘obliged entities’ must comply with anti-money laundering (AML) and counter-terrorist financing requirements. The EBA report is important as it acts as a catalyst to launch bitcoin into the financial mainstream by highlighting the fact that virtual currencies require a regulatory approach to strive for an international coordination to achieve a successful regulatory regime. Also that month GABI (Global Advisors Bitcoin Investment Fund) launches the world’s first regulated Bitcoin Investment fund. This is important to the bitcoin ecosystem as the launch of this investment vehicle adds further legitimacy to bitcoin in addition to allowing regulated investors a way to invest in bitcoin. The Chancellor of the Exchequer, George Osborne, demonstrates his and HM Treasury’s positive outlook on bitcoin when he purchases £20 worth of bitcoin and announces HM Treasury’s Call for Information on digital currencies, offering digital currency businesses the chance to comment on the risks and benefits and potentially influence future government policy. TeraExchange announces that the first bitcoin derivative transaction was executed on a regulated exchange, adding a new hedging instrument to bitcoin and instilling credibility and institutional confidence in the entire bitcoin community. The New York Stock Exchange is a minority investor in Coinbase’s $75M funding round. The NYSE aims to tap into the new asset class by bringing transparency, security and confidence to bitcoin. The results of the UK Treasury’s call for information on digital currency are announced. There are several possible ways Bitcoin can go at this point, all of which point to a legitimate, widespread adoption by large institutions through tighter regulation. Recently, New York’s BitLicense became the world’s first digital currency-specific regulatory regime. It has been through a couple of rounds of consultations and is expected to come into force in a couple of weeks. The European Central Bank and European Banking authority have both released detailed reports on digital currencies, and suggested regulation of the industry by the EU to further control price fluctuations. The Winklevoss brothers, they of Facebook fame, are on the verge of launching their own exchange-traded fund holding Bitcoins. Bitcoin’s journey into the financial mainstream has already begun, with HM Treasury’s report on digital currencies marking encouraging progress toward the predictions in this infographic. The report introduces anti-money laundering, consumer protection and technical standardisation for digital currency companies in the UK, which will encourage traditional financial services to engage more with digital currency businesses and accelerate the integration of blockchain technology within financial services. Read Next: Why Bitcoin is changing how banks do business

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