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Solan S.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Wallenstein S.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Shapiro M.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Teitelbaum S.L.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | And 22 more authors.
Environmental Health Perspectives | Year: 2013

Background: World Trade Center (WTC) rescue and recovery workers were exposed to a complex mix of pollutants and carcinogens. Objective: The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate cancer incidence in responders during the first 7 years after 11 September 2001. Methods: Cancers among 20,984 consented participants in the WTC Health Program were identified through linkage to state tumor registries in New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, and Pennsylvania. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated to compare cancers diagnosed in responders to predicted numbers for the general population. Multivariate regression models were used to estimate associations with degree of exposure. Results: A total of 575 cancers were diagnosed in 552 individuals. Increases above registry-based expectations were noted for all cancer sites combined (SIR = 1.15; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.25), thyroid cancer (SIR = 2.39; 95% CI: 1.70, 3.27), prostate cancer (SIR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.44), combined hematopoietic and lymphoid cancers (SIR = 1.36; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.71), and soft tissue cancers (SIR = 2.26; 95% CI: 1.13, 4.05). When restricted to 302 cancers diagnosed ≥ 6 months after enrollment, the SIR for all cancers decreased to 1.06 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.18), but thyroid and prostate cancer diagnoses remained greater than expected. All cancers combined were increased in very highly exposed responders and among those exposed to significant amounts of dust, compared with responders who reported lower levels of exposure. Conclusion: Estimates should be interpreted with caution given the short follow-up and long latency period for most cancers, the intensive medical surveillance of this cohort, and the small numbers of cancers at specific sites. However, our findings highlight the need for continued follow-up and surveillance of WTC responders. Source

Koshiol J.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Pawlish K.,New Jersey State Cancer registry | Goodman M.T.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Goodman M.T.,Cedars Sinai Medical Center | And 2 more authors.
Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology | Year: 2014

Background & Aims: Studies of liver cancer risk in recipients of solid organ transplants generally have been small, yielding mixed results, and little is known about biliary tract cancers among transplant recipients. Methods: We identified incident hepatobiliary cancers among 201,549 US recipients of solid organs, from 1987 through 2008, by linking data from the US transplant registry with 15 cancer registries. We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs), comparing risk relative to the general population. We also calculated incidence rate ratios (RRs), comparing risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and total (intrahepatic and extrahepatic) cholangiocarcinoma among subgroups of recipients. Results: Of transplant recipients, 165 developed hepatobiliary cancers (SIR, 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-1.4). HCC risk was increased among liver recipients (SIR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.0-2.2), especially 5 or more years after transplant (SIR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.0-3.0). Cholangiocarcinoma was increased among liver (SIR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.6-4.8) and kidney recipients (SIR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.3-3.1). HCC was associated with hepatitis B virus (RR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.3-6.9), hepatitis C virus (RR, 10; 95% CI, 5.9-16.9), and non-insulin-dependent diabetes (RR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-4.8). Cholangiocarcinoma was associated with azathioprine maintenance therapy (RR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1-3.7). Among liver recipients, primary sclerosing cholangitis was associated with an increased risk of cholangiocarcinoma, compared with the general population (SIR, 21; 95% CI, 8.2-42) and compared with liver recipients without primary sclerosing cholangitis (RR, 12.3; 95% CI, 4.1-36.4). Conclusions: Risks for liver and biliary tract cancer are increased among organ transplant recipients. Risk factors for these cancers include medical conditions and potentially medications taken by recipients. © 2014 AGA Institute. Source

Clarke C.A.,Cancer Prevention Institute of California | Clarke C.A.,Stanford University | Robbins H.A.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Tatalovich Z.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | And 8 more authors.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute | Year: 2015

Background: Solid organ transplant recipients have elevated risks of virus-related cancers, in part because of long-term immunosuppression. Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive skin cancer recently found to have a viral origin, but little is known regarding the occurrence of MCC after transplant. Methods: We linked the US Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients with data from 15 population-based cancer registries to ascertain MCC occurrence among 189498 solid organ transplant recipients from 1987 to 2009. Risks for MCC following transplantation were compared with the general population using standardized incidence ratios, and Poisson regression was used to compare incidence rates according to key patient and transplant characteristics. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: After solid organ transplantation, overall risk of MCC was increased 23.8-fold (95% confidence interval = 19.6 to 28.7, n = 110). Adjusted risks were highest among older recipients, increased with time since transplantation, and varied by organ type (all P ≤. 007). Azathioprine, cyclosporine, and mTOR inhibitors given for maintenance immunosuppression increased risk, and non-Hispanic white recipients on cyclosporine and azathioprine experienced increasing MCC risk with lower latitude of residence (ie, higher ultraviolet radiation exposure, P =. 012). Conclusions: MCC risk is sharply elevated after solid organ transplant, likely resulting from long-term immunosuppression. Immunosuppressive medications may act synergistically with ultraviolet radiation to increase risk. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Source

Coghill A.E.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Shiels M.S.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Rycroft R.K.,Colorado Central Cancer Registry | Copeland G.,Michigan Cancer Surveillance Program | And 4 more authors.
AIDS | Year: 2016

Objective: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the rectum is rare, but as with anal cancer, risk may be increased among immunosuppressed individuals. We assessed risk of rectal SCC in HIV-infected people. Design: Population-based registry. Methods: We utilized the HIV/AIDS Cancer Match, a linkage of US HIV and cancer registries (1991-2010), to ascertain cases of anal SCC, rectal SCC, rectal non-SCC, and colon non-SCC. We compared risk in HIV-infected persons with the general population using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and evaluated risk factors using Poisson regression. We reviewed cancer registry case notes to confirm site and histology for a subset of cases. Results: HIV-infected persons had an excess risk of rectal SCC compared with the general population (SIR = 28.9; 95% CI 23.2-35.6), similar to the increase for anal SCC (SIR = 37.3). Excess rectal SCC risk was most pronounced among HIV-infected MSM (SIR = 61.2). Risk was not elevated for rectal non-SCC (SIR = 0.88) or colon non-SCC (SIR = 0.63). Individuals diagnosed with AIDS had higher rectal SCC rates than those with HIV-only (incidence rate ratio = 1.92; 95% CI 1.08-3.42). Based on available information, one-third of rectal SCCs were determined to be misclassified anal cancer. Conclusion: HIV-infected individuals, especially with advanced immunosuppression, appear to have substantially elevated risk for rectal SCC. As for anal SCC, rectal SCC risk was highest in MSM, pointing to involvement of a sexually transmitted infection such as human papillomavirus. Site misclassification was present, and detailed information on tumour location is needed to prove that rectal SCC is a distinct entity. © Copyright 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Yao S.,Roswell Park Cancer Institute | Zirpoli G.,Roswell Park Cancer Institute | Bovbjerg D.H.,University of Pittsburgh | Jandorf L.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | And 15 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research | Year: 2012

Introduction: American women of African ancestry (AA) are more likely than European Americans (EA) to have estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer. 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) is low in AAs, and was associated with ER-negative tumors in EAs. We hypothesized that racial differences in 25OHD levels, as well as in inherited genetic variations, may contribute, in part, to the differences in tumor characteristics.Methods: In a case (n = 928)-control (n = 843) study of breast cancer in AA and EA women, we measured serum 25OHD levels in controls and tested associations between risk and tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in VDR, CYP24A1 and CYP27B1, particularly by ER status.Results: More AAs had severe vitamin D deficiency (< 10 ng/ml) than EAs (34.3% vs 5.9%), with lowest levels among those with the highest African ancestry. Associations for SNPs differed by race. Among AAs, VDR SNP rs2239186, associated with higher serum levels of 25OHD, decreased risk after correction for multiple testing (OR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.31-0.79, p by permutation = 0.03), but had no effect in EAs. The majority of associations were for ER-negative breast cancer, with seven differential associations between AA and EA women for CYP24A1 (p for interaction < 0.10). SNP rs27622941 was associated with a > twofold increased risk of ER-negative breast cancer among AAs (OR = 2.62, 95% CI = 1.38-4.98), but had no effect in EAs. rs2209314 decreased risk among EAs (OR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.20-0.73), with no associations in AAs. The increased risk of ER-negative breast cancer in AAs compared to EAs was reduced and became non-significant (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 0.80-1.79) after adjusting for these two CYP24A1 SNPs.Conclusions: These data suggest that genetic variants in the vitamin D pathway may be related to the higher prevalence of ER-negative breast cancer in AA women. © 2012 Yao et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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