New Jersey Center for Biomaterials

East Newark, NJ, United States

New Jersey Center for Biomaterials

East Newark, NJ, United States
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Bushman J.,New Jersey Center for Biomaterials | Vaughan A.,New Jersey Center for Biomaterials | Sheihet L.,New Jersey Center for Biomaterials | Zhang Z.,New Jersey Center for Biomaterials | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Controlled Release | Year: 2013

Targeted delivery of anti-cancer agents to cancer cells is a mature line of investigation that has yet to realize its full potential. In this study we report on the development of a delivery platform with the future goal of merging two thus far parallel methods for selective elimination of cancer cells: targeted nanospheres and pretargeted radioimmunotherapy. Several clinical trials have shown the promise of pretargeted radioimmunotherapy, which leverages the specificity of antibodies for targeted cell populations and delivers a localized dose of a biotinylated radionuclide that is most often administered following binding of a biotinylated antibody and streptavidin (StA) to the target cells. The work presented here describes the development of biotinylated nanospheres based on an ABA-type copolymer comprised of a tyrosine-derived oligomer as the B-block and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) A-blocks. The biotinylated nanospheres encapsulate paclitaxel (PTX) to the same extent as unbiotinylated nanospheres. Efficacy of targeting was shown on CD44 positive cells in the SUM159 breast cancer cell line by incubating the cells sequentially with a biotinylated anti-CD44 antibody, StA and the biotinylated nanospheres encapsulating PTX. Targeted nanospheres achieved the half maximal inhibitory concentration of PTX on SUM159 cells at a 5-10 fold lower concentration than that of PTX applied in either non-targeted nanospheres or free drug approaches. Moreover, targeted nanospheres selectively eliminated CD44 positive SUM159 cells compared to free PTX and untargeted nanospheres. This new generation of nano-sized carrier offers a versatile platform that can be adopted for a wide variety of drug and target specific applications and has the potential to be combined with the clinically emerging method of pretargeted radioimmunotherapy. © 2013 The Authors.

Wang J.,University of Rochester | Bushman J.,New Jersey Center for Biomaterials | Wang X.,Cleveland Clinic | Mayer-Proschel M.,University of Rochester | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2013

Despite the great interest in identifying the cell-of-origin for different cancers, little knowledge exists regarding the extent to which the specific origin of a tumor contributes to its properties. To directly examine this question, we expressed identical oncogenes in two types of glial progenitor cells, glial-restricted precursor (GRP) cells and oligodendrocyte/type-2 astrocyte progenitor cells (O-2A/OPCs), and in astrocytes of the mouse CNS (either directly purified or generated from GRP cells). In vitro, expression of identical oncogenes in these cells generated populations differing in expression of antigens thought to identify tumor initiating cells, generation of 3D aggregates when grown as adherent cultures, and sensitivity to the chemotherapeutic agent BCNU. In vivo, cells differed in their ability to form tumors, in malignancy and even in the type of host-derived cells infiltrating the tumor mass. Moreover, identical genetic modification of these different cells yielded benign infiltrative astrocytomas, malignant astrocytomas, or tumors with characteristics seen in oligodendrogliomas and small-cell astrocytomas, indicating a contribution of cell-of-origin to the characteristic properties expressed by these different tumors. Our studies also revealed unexpected relationships between the cell-of-origin, differentiation, and the order of oncogene acquisition at different developmental stages in enabling neoplastic growth. These studies thus provide multiple novel demonstrations of the importance of the cell-of-origin in respect to the properties of transformed cells derived from them. In addition, the approaches used enable analysis of the role of cell-of-origin in tumor biology in ways that are not accessible by other more widely used approaches. © 2013 the authors.

Goyal R.,New Jersey Center for Biomaterials | Macri L.K.,New Jersey Center for Biomaterials | Kaplan H.M.,New Jersey Center for Biomaterials | Kohn J.,New Jersey Center for Biomaterials
Journal of Controlled Release | Year: 2016

This review provides the first comprehensive overview of the use of both nanoparticles and nanofibers for topical drug delivery. Researchers have explored the use of nanotechnology, specifically nanoparticles and nanofibers, as drug delivery systems for topical and transdermal applications. This approach employs increased drug concentration in the carrier, in order to increase drug flux into and through the skin. Both nanoparticles and nanofibers can be used to deliver hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs and are capable of controlled release for a prolonged period of time. The examples presented provide significant evidence that this area of research has — and will continue to have — a profound impact on both clinical outcomes and the development of new products. © 2015

Batheja P.,New Jersey Center for Biomaterials | Batheja P.,Rutgers University | Sheihet L.,New Jersey Center for Biomaterials | Kohn J.,New Jersey Center for Biomaterials | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Controlled Release | Year: 2011

Tyrosine-derived nanospheres have demonstrated potential as effective carriers for the topical delivery of lipophilic molecules. In this investigation, a gel formulation containing nanospheres was developed for effective skin application and enhanced permeation. Carbopol and HPMC hydrophilic gels were evaluated for dispersion of these nanospheres. Sparingly water soluble diclofenac sodium (DS) and lipophilic Nile Red were used as model compounds. DS was used to determine the optimum polymer type, viscosity and release properties of the gel while fluorescent Nile Red was used in in vitro and in vivo skin distribution studies. In addition, the effect of a penetration enhancer, Azone, on the skin delivery was investigated. Dispersion of Nile Red-loaded nanospheres in 1% w/v HPMC gel produced a uniform and stable dispersion with suitable rheological properties for topical application, without any short-term cellular toxicity or tissue irritation. In vitro permeation studies using human cadaver skin revealed that the deposition of Nile Red via the nanosphere gel in the upper and lower dermis was 1.4 and 1.8 fold higher, respectively, than the amount of Nile Red deposited via an aqueous nanosphere formulation. In vivo, the HPMC gel containing Nile Red-loaded nanospheres significantly enhanced (1.4 fold) the permeation of Nile Red to the porcine stratum corneum/epidermis compared to the aqueous Nile Red-loaded nanospheres. An additional increase (1.4 fold) of Nile Red deposition in porcine stratum corneum/epidermis was achieved by incorporation of Azone (0.2 M) into the nanosphere gel formulation. Therefore, tyrosine-derived nanospheres dispersed in gels offer promise for the topical delivery of lipophilic drugs and personal care agents to skin for treatment of cancers, psoriasis, eczema, and microbial infections. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Zhang J.,Rutgers University | Zhang J.,New Jersey Center for Biomaterials | Michniak-Kohn B.,Rutgers University | Michniak-Kohn B.,New Jersey Center for Biomaterials
International Journal of Pharmaceutics | Year: 2011

In this study, microemulsion microstructures, key formulation variables, and their relationship to drug transdermal permeation enhancement were investigated. A microemulsion system with high water soluble capacity was developed, using isopropyl myristate, Labrasol, and Cremophor EL as oil, surfactant, and co-surfactant, respectively. The microstructures of the microemulsions were characterized by a combination of techniques including electrical conductivity measurement (EC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), electro-analytical cyclic voltammetry (CV), dynamic light scattering (DLS). Three microemulsion formulations with the model drugs at water contents of 20%, 40%, and 70% representing the microstructures of W/O, Bi-continuous, and O/W were prepared along the water dilution line of oil to surfactant ratio of 1/9. Skin permeation of hydrophobic and hydrophilic model drugs, ketoprofen, lidocaine, and caffeine in the microemulsion formulations was studied using Franz-cells and dermatomed porcine skin. Permeation of all drugs from microemulsions was enhanced significantly compared with the control propylene glycol formulation. The drug permeation flux and the cumulative permeation amount after 24 h increased with water content in the microemulsions, thus correlated to the formulation microstructures of W/O, Bi-continuous, and O/W. The permeation of lipophilic drugs ketoprofen and lidocaine increased with water content in a more pronounced manner, which seemed to follow an exponential growth trend, while the permeation of hydrophilic drug caffeine appeared to increase linearly. Additionally, at the same water content, increasing oil content led to higher ketoprofen permeation. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Zhang Z.,New Jersey Center for Biomaterials | Michniak-Kohn B.B.,Rutgers University
Pharmaceutics | Year: 2012

Human skin not only serves as an important barrier against the penetration of exogenous substances into the body, but also provides a potential avenue for the transport of functional active drugs/reagents/ingredients into the skin (topical delivery) and/or the body (transdermal delivery). In the past three decades, research and development in human skin equivalents have advanced in parallel with those in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The human skin equivalents are used commercially as clinical skin substitutes and as models for permeation and toxicity screening. Several academic laboratories have developed their own human skin equivalent models and applied these models for studying skin permeation, corrosivity and irritation, compound toxicity, biochemistry, metabolism and cellular pharmacology. Various aspects of the state of the art of human skin equivalents are reviewed and discussed. © 2012 by the authors.

Murthy N.S.,New Jersey Center for Biomaterials | Wang W.,University of Vermont | Kohn J.,New Jersey Center for Biomaterials
Polymer | Year: 2010

Hydration- and temperature-induced microphase separations were investigated by simultaneous small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in a family of copolymers in which hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) blocks are inserted randomly into a hydrophobic polymer made of either desaminotyrosyl-tyrosine ethyl ester (DTE) or iodinated I2DTE segments. Iodination of the tyrosine rings in I2DTE increased the X-ray contrast between the hydrophobic and hydrophilic segments in addition to facilitating the study of the effect of iodination on microphase separation. The formation of phase-separated, hydrated PEG domains is of considerable significance as it profoundly affects the polymer properties. The copolymers of DTE (or I2DTE) and PEG are a useful model system, and the findings presented here may be applicable to other PEG-containing random copolymers. In copolymers of PEG and DTE and I2DTE, the presence of PEG depressed the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the copolymer relative to the homopolymer, poly(DTE carbonate), and the DTE/I2DTE segments hindered the crystallization of the PEG segments. In the dry state, at large PEG fractions (>70 vol%), the PEG domains self-assembled into an ordered structure with 14-18 nm distance between the domains. These domains gave rise to a SAXS peak at all temperatures in the iodinated polymers, but only above the Tg in non-iodinated polymers, due to the unexpected contrast-match between the crystalline PEG domains and the glassy DTE segments. Irrespective of whether PEG was crystalline or not, immersion of these copolymers in water resulted in the formation of hydrated PEG domains that were 10-20 nm apart. Since both water and the polymer chains must be mobile for the phase separation to occur, the PEG domains disappeared when the water froze, and reappeared as the ice began to melt. This transformation was reversible, and showed hysteresis as did the melting of ice and freezing of the water incorporated into the polymer. PEG-water complexes and PEG-water eutectics were observed in WAXS and DSC scans, respectively. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Lewis D.R.,Rutgers University | Kamisoglu K.,Rutgers University | York A.W.,New Jersey Center for Biomaterials | Moghe P.V.,Rutgers University
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology | Year: 2011

Coronary arterial disease, one of the leading causes of adult mortality, is triggered by atherosclerosis. A disease with complex etiology, atherosclerosis results from the progressive long-term combination of atherogenesis, the accumulation of modified lipoproteins within blood vessel walls, along with vascular and systemic inflammatory processes. The management of atherosclerosis is challenged by the localized flare-up of several multipronged signaling interactions between activated monocytes, atherogenic macrophages and inflamed or dysfunctional endothelial cells. A new generation of approaches is now emerging founded on multifocal, targeted therapies that seek to reverse or ameliorate the atheroinflammatory cascade within the vascular intima. This article reviews the various classes and primary examples of bioactive configurations of nanoscale assemblies. Of specific interest are polymer-based or polymer-lipid micellar assemblies designed as multimodal receptor-targeted blockers or drug carriers whose activity can be tuned by variations in polymer hydrophobicity, charge, and architecture. Also reviewed are emerging reports on multifunctional nanoassemblies and nanoparticles for improved circulation and enhanced targeting to atheroinflammatory lesions and atherosclerotic plaques. © 2011 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Treiser M.D.,Rutgers University | Yang E.H.,Rutgers University | Gordonov S.,Rutgers University | Cohen D.M.,University of Pennsylvania | And 4 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2010

Stem cells that adopt distinct lineages cannot be distinguished based on traditional cell shape. This study reports that higher-order variations in cell shape and cytoskeletal organization that occur within hours of stimulation forecast the lineage commitment fates of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). The unique approach captures numerous early (24 h), quantitative features of actin fluororeporter shapes, intensities, textures, and spatial distributions (collectively termed morphometric descriptors). The large number of descriptors are reduced into "combinations" through which distinct subpopulations of cells featuring unique combinations are identified. We demonstrate that hMSCs cultured on fibronectin-treated glass substrates under environments permissive to bone lineage induction could be readily discerned within the first 24 h from those cultured in basal- or fat-inductive conditions by such cytoskeletal feature groupings. We extend the utility of this approach to forecast osteogenic stem cell lineage fates across a series of synthetic polymeric materials of diverse physico-chemical properties. Within the first 24 h following stem cell seeding, we could successfully "profile" the substrate responsiveness prospectively in terms of the degree of bone versus nonbone predisposition. The morphometric methodology also provided insights into how substrates may modulate the pace of osteogenic lineage specification. Cells on glass substrates deficient in fibronectin showed a similar divergence of lineage fates, but delayed beyond 48 h. In summary, this high-content imaging and single cell modeling approach offers a framework to elucidate and manipulate determinants of stem cell behaviors, as well as to screen stem cell lineage modulating materials and environments.

Li X.,Clemson University | Murthy N.S.,New Jersey Center for Biomaterials | Latour R.A.,Clemson University
Macromolecules | Year: 2012

The effect of hydration on the molecular structure of amorphous poly(d,l-lactic acid) (PDLLA) with 50:50 L-to-D ratio has been studied by combining experiments with molecular simulations. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed significant changes upon hydration in the structure functions of the copolymer. Large changes in the structure functions at ∼10 days of incubation coincided with the large increase in the water uptake from ∼1 to ∼40% and the formation of voids in the film. Computer modeling based on the recently developed TIGER2/TIGER3 mixed sampling scheme was used to interpret these changes by efficiently equilibrating both dry and hydrated models of PDLLA. Realistic models of bulk amorphous PDLLA structure were generated as demonstrated by close agreement between the calculated and the experimental structure functions. These molecular simulations were used to identify the interactions between water and the polymer at the atomic level including the change of positional order between atoms in the polymer due to hydration. Changes in the partial O-O structure functions, about 95% of which were due to water-polymer interactions, were apparent in the radial distribution functions. These changes, and somewhat smaller changes in the C-C and C-O partial structure functions, clearly demonstrated the ability of the model to capture the hydrogen-bonding interactions between water and the polymer, with the probability of water forming hydrogen bonds with the carbonyl oxygen of the ester group being about 4 times higher than with its ether oxygen. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

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