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Okuma O.,New Industry Research Organization | Hayashi J.,Kansai University | Fukunaga Y.,Shirataki Bio | Adachi Y.,Shirataki Bio
Nihon Enerugi Gakkaishi/Journal of the Japan Institute of Energy | Year: 2015

A carbonization process combined with drying by fermentation has been developed to utilize effectively wet-biomass such as sewage-sludge. This process consists of two steps; drying by aerobic fermentation and carbonizing without fossil fuel for heating. In this paper, we focus on the carbonization step because we reported the drying step in the previous paper. We designed and constructed a carbonization plant to treat 1.0 t/h dried-sludge of lower 30wt% moisture. It consists of a rotary kiln heated externally and a combustor burning only volatile-matter from the sludge during stable operation of the plant. At a start of the plant operation, A-fuel is burned in the combustor to heat the kiln up to over 400 °C. Then the dried sewage-sludge of ca.30 wt% moisture is gradually fed into the kiln. These operations provided that the stable carbonization condition without A-fuel was temperature of 410 ∼430 °C at the sludge feeding rate of 1.0 t/h. Under this condition, char yield was ca.50wt%, and its heating value and carbon content were ca.3,500 kcal/kg and 35 ∼ 38 wt%, respectively. At present, the plant is continuously operated for around 3 weeks at once without fossil fuels except at start up. Source


Okuma O.,New Industry Research Organization | Hayashi J.,Kansai University | Fukunaga Y.,Shirataki Bio | Adachi Y.,Shirataki Bio
Nihon Enerugi Gakkaishi/Journal of the Japan Institute of Energy | Year: 2015

Wet-biomass such as sewage-sludge is very large resources of renewable energy and carbon material. However, since such wet-biomass contains much moisture, it is necessary to be dried before energy utilization as fuel. Therefore, we have developed a carbonization process combined with drying by fermentation. This process consists of two steps; drying by aerobic fermentation without additional energy to vaporize the moisture, and carbonizing by heat generated from burning of only volatile-matter derived from the sludge. In this paper, we focus on the drying step. In drying step, wet-sludge received was immediately mixed with wood-chips of about 2 times by volume to make a heap for fermentation. The temperature in the heap increased rapidly up- to ca.80 °C for several days, then decreased gradually. The moisture of the sludge decreased gradually with temperature from ca.80wt% to below 30 wt% for 40 ∼ 60 days. During fermentation, the heap was re-built every 7 ∼ 10 days. The dried sludge was fed to carbonization step after removing the wood-chips by sieving. We discussed the changes of the sludge properties by drying, and the effects of the heap size and air-flow-rate blown into the heap on the changes of temperature and moisture during fermentation. Source


Zhou M.,Hyogo Prefectural Institute of Technology | Matoba O.,Kobe University | Kitagawa Y.,Hyogo Prefectural Institute of Technology | Takizawa Y.,Hyogo Prefectural Institute of Technology | And 4 more authors.
Applied Optics | Year: 2010

We evaluate the imaging characteristics of an integrated optical imaging element that is used to obtain images from opposite directions in one imaging sensor for a three-dimensional eye-gaze detection system. The element consists of a transmission-type holographic imaging element, a reflection-type holographic imaging element, and a noise reduction filter. In the evaluation of the imaging characteristics, modulation transfer functions of both the reflection-type and the transmission-type holographic imaging elements are evaluated. Results indicate that both holographic imaging elements have enough resolution, even under white-light illumination conditions, for eye-gaze detection. We also demonstrate the simultaneous detection of images by an artificial eye and objects by using the integrated element under white light or sunlight. © 2010 Optical Society of America. Source


Hayashi J.,Kansai University | Okuma O.,New Industry Research Organization | Fukuda S.,Kansai University | Kageura N.,Kansai University
Nihon Enerugi Gakkaishi/Journal of the Japan Institute of Energy | Year: 2014

The cow manure compost was carbonized in temperature range of 400-1000 °C. The water vapor adsorption property of the prepared char was investigated. A large increase of amount adsorbed of water vapor was found around relative pressure of 0.80. However, in the char prepared at carbonization temperature of 1000 °C, a large increase of amount adsorbed was disappeared. It was clarified that the increase of the amount adsorbed was attributed to KCl contained in the char. The humidity control property of the cow manure compost char was also investigated. The compost char showed the stable behavior of the adsorption-desorption of water vapor during the cyclic humidity change. It was found that the humidity control property of the cow manure char was superior to that of the commercial wood char for the humidity conditioning. Source


Inoue T.,Kobelco Research Institute | Okuma O.,New Industry Research Organization | Masuda K.,Kobelco Research Institute | Yasumuro M.,Kobe Steel | Miura K.,Kyoto University
Energy and Fuels | Year: 2012

Scale deposition is a very troublesome problem for a long-term stable operation of a direct coal liquefaction plant. The scale reduction effect of hydrothermal treatment (HTT) for a brown coal liquefaction was investigated using a 0.1 ton/day process development unit (PDU). It was found that the amount of scale formed was reduced by half compared to non-treated coal when HTT coal treated at 325 °C was liquefied. This was because most carboxyl groups were decomposed and exchangeable cations, such as Ca and Na, precursors of the scale, such as CaCO 3 and NaCl, were reduced during HTT. Furthermore, the formation of scale comprising Fe 1-xS and SiO 2 was also suppressed by HTT probably because of a decrease in the amounts of NaCl and CaCO 3. Liquefying the HTT coal slightly decreased the oil yield compared to the non-treated coal. However, this disadvantage is compensated by the increase in the space time yield of the reactors liquefying HTT coal, because the coal concentration of the HTT coal-solvent slurry fed to the reactors can be increased from 28 to 42 wt % as a result of the reduction of viscosity, as reported in an our previous paper. The concentrations of major scale precursors in the HTT coal-solvent slurry of 42 wt % coal concentration are lower than those in the non-treated coal-solvent slurry of 28 wt % coal concentration. These results indicate that HTT is an effective pretreatment method not only to realize a long-term stable operation but also to improve the oil productivity of the liquefaction plant. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source

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