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Anderson N.G.,The Andersons | Burdick D.C.,Creative Innovation Partners | Reeve M.M.,New Haven Pharmaceuticals
Organic Process Research and Development

Process validation includes laboratory optimization, pilot-plant introduction, and process implementation on manufacturing scale, as well as monitoring batches after implementation and continuously improving the manufacturing processes. There are many opportunities to change and optimize operations. The background information in this contribution describes current guidance and terminology for validation, including the integration of validation over the development lifecycle of drug substances. Various examples illustrate challenges and success stories of implementation as part of the overall approach to process validation. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source

Marra A.,New Haven Pharmaceuticals
Future Microbiology

Evaluation of: Kumarasamy KK, Toleman MA, Walsh TR et al.: Emergence of a new antibiotic resistance mechanism in India, Pakistan, and the UK: a molecular, biological, and epidemiological study. Lancet Infect. Dis. 10(9), 597-602 (2010). Are bacteria always going to outsmart us? With the emergence of the metallo-β-lactamase blaNDM-1 gene, it certainly seems so. Whereas at one time bacterial clones resided in hospitals or long-term care facilities, it is now apparent that they have the capability of thriving in the community and quickly spreading across countries and continents with few impediments, thanks to accessible, rapid global travel. Thus, under conditions favoring the organism (promiscuous or inappropriate antibiotic use and poor infection control procedures), what was at one time a local problem can rapidly become a worldwide health crisis. Given that the discovery and development of a new antibiotic can take a decade or more, multiply resistant pathogens can have ample time to wreak havoc before a successful novel agent comes to market. At one time a single drug, penicillin, was enough to raise expectations that new antibiotics were unnecessary; we have since seen that bacteria can generate stable resistance to every antibiotic in rapid fashion, with no detrimental effects on their pathogenicity. © 2011 Future Medicine Ltd. Source

Bush K.,Indiana University | Pucci M.J.,New Haven Pharmaceuticals
Biochemical Pharmacology

Antibiotic resistance issues necessitate the continued discovery and development of new antibacterial agents. Efforts are ongoing in two approaches to find new compounds that are effective against antibiotic-resistant pathogens. These efforts involve modification of existing classes including fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, and β-lactams and identification of inhibitors against previously unexploited antibacterial targets. Examples of both approaches are described here with emphasis on compounds in late pre-clinical or clinical stages of development. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Pucci M.J.,New Haven Pharmaceuticals | Bush K.,Indiana University Bloomington
Clinical Microbiology Reviews

New antimicrobial agents are always needed to counteract the resistant pathogens that continue to be selected by current therapeutic regimens. This review provides a survey of known antimicrobial agents that were currently in clinical development in the fall of 2012 and spring of 2013. Data were collected from published literature primarily from 2010 to 2012, meeting abstracts (2011 to 2012), government websites, and company websites when appropriate. Compared to what was reported in previous surveys, a surprising number of new agents are currently in company pipelines, particularly in phase 3 clinical development. Familiar antibacterial classes of the quinolones, tetracyclines, oxazolidinones, glycopeptides, and cephalosporins are represented by entities with enhanced antimicrobial or pharmacological properties. More importantly, compounds of novel chemical structures targeting bacterial pathways not previously exploited are under development. Some of the most promising compounds include novel β-lactamase inhibitor combinations that target many multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, a critical medical need. Although new antimicrobial agents will continue to be needed to address increasing antibiotic resistance, there are novel agents in development to tackle at least some of the more worrisome pathogens in the current nosocomial setting. © 2013, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

Marra A.,New Haven Pharmaceuticals
Methods in Molecular Biology

One of the foremost challenges of drug discovery in any therapeutic area is that of solidifying the correlation between in vitro activity and clinical efficacy. Between these is the confirmation that affecting a particular target in vivo will lead to a therapeutic benefit. In antibacterial drug discovery, there is a key advantage from the start, since the targets are bacteria-therefore, it is simple to ascertain in vitro whether a drug has the desired effect, i.e., bacterial cell inhibition or killing, and to understand the mechanism by which that occurs. The downstream criteria, whether a compound reaches the infection site and achieves appropriately high levels to affect bacterial viability, can be evaluated in animal models of infection. In this way animal models of infection can be a highly valuable and predictive bridge between in vitro drug discovery and early clinical evaluation. The Gram-positive pathogen Staphylococcus aureus causes a wide variety of infections in humans (Archer, Clin Infect Dis 26:1179-1181, 1998) and has been said to be able to infect every tissue type. Fortunately, over the years a great deal of effort has been expended toward developing infection models in rodents using this organism, with good success. This chapter will describe the advantages, methods, and outcome measurements of the rodent models most used in drug discovery for S. aureus. Mouse models will be the focus of this chapter, as they are the most economical and thus most commonly used, but a rat infection model is included as well. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

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