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Lutz C.K.,Southwest Research Institute | Coleman K.,Oregon National Primate Research Center | Worlein J.,Washington National Primate Research Center | Novak M.A.,University of Massachusetts Amherst | Novak M.A.,New England Primate Research Center
Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science | Year: 2013

Alopecia is a common problem in rhesus macaque colonies. A possible cause of this condition is hair-pulling; however the true relationship between hair-pulling and alopecia is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between hair loss and hair-pulling in 1258 rhesus macaques housed in 4 primate colonies across the United States. Alopecia levels ranged from 34.3% to 86.5% (mean, 49.3%) at the primate facilities. At facilities reporting a sex-associated difference, more female macaques were reported to exhibit alopecia than were males. In contrast, more males were reported to hair-pull. Animals reported to hair-pull were significantly more likely to have some amount of alopecia, but rates of hair-pulling were substantially lower than rates of alopecia, ranging from 0.6% to 20.5% (mean, 7.7%) of the populations. These results further demonstrate that hair-pulling plays only a small role in alopecia in rhesus macaques. Copyright 2013 by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science. Source

Barouch D.H.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | Barouch D.H.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Whitney J.B.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | Moldt B.,Scripps Research Institute | And 25 more authors.
Nature | Year: 2013

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific monoclonal antibodies with extraordinary potency and breadth have recently been described. In humanized mice, combinations of monoclonal antibodies have been shown to suppress viraemia, but the therapeutic potential of these monoclonal antibodies has not yet been evaluated in primates with an intact immune system. Here we show that administration of a cocktail of HIV-1-specific monoclonal antibodies, as well as the single glycan-dependent monoclonal antibody PGT121, resulted in a rapid and precipitous decline of plasma viraemia to undetectable levels in rhesus monkeys chronically infected with the pathogenic simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIV-SF162P3. A single monoclonal antibody infusion afforded up to a 3.1 log decline of plasma viral RNA in 7 days and also reduced proviral DNA in peripheral blood, gastrointestinal mucosa and lymph nodes without the development of viral resistance. Moreover, after monoclonal antibody administration, host Gag-specific T-lymphocyte responses showed improved functionality. Virus rebounded in most animals after a median of 56 days when serum monoclonal antibody titres had declined to undetectable levels, although, notably, a subset of animals maintained long-term virological control in the absence of further monoclonal antibody infusions. These data demonstrate a profound therapeutic effect of potent neutralizing HIV-1-specific monoclonal antibodies in SHIV-infected rhesus monkeys as well as an impact on host immune responses. Our findings strongly encourage the investigation of monoclonal antibody therapy for HIV-1 in humans. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Liu Q.,Shinshu University | Yao W.-D.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | Yao W.-D.,New England Primate Research Center | Suzuki T.,Shinshu University
Journal of Neurogenetics | Year: 2013

Postsynaptic membrane rafts are believed to play important roles in synaptic signaling, plasticity, and maintenance. We recently demonstrated the presence, at the electron microscopic level, of complexes consisting of membrane rafts and postsynaptic densities (PSDs) in detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) prepared from synaptic plasma membranes (SPMs) (Suzuki et al., 2011, J Neurochem, 119, 64-77). To further explore these complexes, here we investigated the nature of the binding between purified SPM-DRMs and PSDs in vitro. In binding experiments, we used SPM-DRMs prepared after treating SPMs with n-octyl-β-d-glucoside, because at concentrations of 1.0% or higher it completely separates SPM-DRMs and PSDs, providing substantially PSD-free unique SPM-DRMs as well as DRM-free PSDs. PSD binding to PSD-free DRMs was identified by mass spectrometry, Western blotting, and electron microscopy. PSD proteins were not incorporated into SPMs, and significantly less PSD proteins were incorporated into DRMs prepared from liver membranes, providing in vitro evidence that binding of PSDs to DRMs is specific and suggestion of the presence of specific interacting molecules. These specific interactions may have important roles in synaptic development, function, and plasticity in vivo. In addition, the binding system we developed may be a good tool to search for binding molecules and binding mechanisms between PSDs and rafts. Copyright © 2013 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source

Faraone S.V.,SUNY Upstate Medical University | Spencer T.J.,Harvard University | Madras B.K.,New England Primate Research Center | Madras B.K.,Harvard University | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Psychiatry | Year: 2014

Much psychiatric genetic research has focused on a 40-base pair variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism located in the 3′- untranslated region (3′UTR) of the dopamine active transporter (DAT) gene (SLC6A3). This variant produces two common alleles with 9- and 10-repeats (9R and 10R). Studies associating this variant with in vivo DAT activity in humans have had mixed results. We searched for studies using positron emission tomography (PET) or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to evaluate this association. Random effects meta-analyses assessed the association of the 3′UTR variant with DAT activity. We also evaluated heterogeneity among studies and evidence for publication bias. We found twelve studies comprising 511 subjects, 125 from PET studies and 386 from SPECT studies. The PET studies provided highly significant evidence that the 9R allele was associated with increased DAT activity in human adults. The SPECT studies were highly heterogeneous. As a group, they suggested no association between the 3′UTR polymorphism and DAT activity. When the analysis was limited to the most commonly used ligand, 123I β-CIT, stratification by affection status dramatically reduced heterogeneity and revealed a significant association of the 9R allele with increased DAT activity for healthy subjects. In humans, the 9R allele of the 3′UTR polymorphism of SLC6A3 regulates dopamine activity in the striatal brain regions independent of the presence of neuropsychiatric illness. Differences in study methodology account for the heterogeneous results across individual studies. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source

Santra S.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | Liao H.-X.,Duke University | Zhang R.,Duke University | Muldoon M.,University of Manchester | And 18 more authors.
Nature Medicine | Year: 2010

An effective HIV vaccine must elicit immune responses that recognize genetically diverse viruses. It must generate CD8+ T lymphocytes that control HIV replication and CD4+ T lymphocytes that provide help for the generation and maintenance of both cellular and humoral immune responses against the virus. Creating immunogens that can elicit cellular immune responses against the genetically varied circulating isolates of HIV presents a key challenge for creating an HIV vaccine. Polyvalent mosaic immunogens derived by in silico recombination of natural strains of HIV are designed to induce cellular immune responses that recognize genetically diverse circulating virus isolates. Here we immunized rhesus monkeys by plasmid DNA prime and recombinant vaccinia virus boost with vaccine constructs expressing either consensus or polyvalent mosaic proteins. As compared to consensus immunogens, the mosaic immunogens elicited CD8+ T lymphocyte responses to more epitopes of each viral protein than did the consensus immunogens and to more variant sequences of CD8 + T lymphocyte epitopes. This increased breadth and depth of epitope recognition may contribute both to protection against infection by genetically diverse viruses and to the control of variant viruses that emerge as they mutate away from recognition by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. © 2010 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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