Delhi, India
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Chadha V.K.,National Tuberculosis Institute | Sarin R.,Lala Ram Sarup Institute of TB and Allied Respiratory Diseases | Narang P.,Mahatma Gandhi Institute | John K.R.,SRM University | And 8 more authors.
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease | Year: 2013

SETTING: Twenty-four districts in India. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate trends in annual risk of tuberculous infection (ARTI) in each of four geographically defined zones in the country. STUDY DESIGN: Two rounds of house-based tuberculin surveys were conducted 8-9 years apart among children aged 1-9 years in statistically selected clusters during 2000-2003 and 2009-2010 (Surveys I and II). Altogether, 184 992 children were tested with 1 tuberculin unit (TU) of purified protein derivative (PPD) RT23 with Tween 80 in Survey I and 69 496 children with 2TU dose of PPD in Survey II. The maximum transverse diameter of induration was measured about 72 h after test administration. ARTI was computed from the prevalence of infection estimated using the mirror-image method. RESULTS: Estimated ARTI rates in different zones varied between 1.1% and 1.9% in Survey I and 0.6% and 1.2% in Survey II. The ARTI declined by respectively 6.1% and 11.7% per year in the north and west zones; no decline was observed in the south and east zones. National level estimates were respectively 1.5% and 1.0%, with a decline of 4.5% per year in the intervening period. CONCLUSION: Although a decline in ARTI was observed in two of the four zones and at national level, the current ARTI of about 1% in three zones suggests that further intensification of TB control activities is required. © 2013 The Union.


Chandra S.,World Health Organization | Sharma N.,Maulana Azad Medical College | Joshi K.,Office of Chief Minister Delhi | Aggarwal N.,New Delhi Center | Kannan A.T.,University of Delhi
Health Research Policy and Systems | Year: 2014

Background: The key to universal coverage in tuberculosis (TB) management lies in community participation and empowerment of the population. Social infrastructure development generates social capital and addresses the crucial social determinants of TB, thereby improving program performance. Recently, there has been renewed interest in the concept of social infrastructure development for TB control in developing countries. This study aims to revive this concept and highlight the fact that documentation on ways to operationalize urban TB control is required from a holistic development perspective. Further, it explains how development of social infrastructure impacts health and development outcomes, especially with respect to TB in urban settings.Methods: A wide range of published Government records pertaining to social development parameters and TB program surveillance, between 2001 and 2011 in Delhi, were studied. Social infrastructure development parameters like human development index along with other indicators reflecting patient profile and habitation in urban settings were selected as social determinants of TB. These include adult literacy rates, per capita income, net migration rates, percentage growth in slum population, and percentage of urban population living in one-room dwelling units. The impact of the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program on TB incidence was assessed as an annual decline in new TB cases notified under the program. Univariate linear regression was employed to examine the interrelationship between social development parameters and TB program outcomes.Results: The decade saw a significant growth in most of the social development parameters in the State. TB program performance showed 46% increment in lives saved among all types of TB cases per 100,000 population. The 7% reduction in new TB case notifications from the year 2001 to 2011, translates to a logarithmic decline of 5.4 new TB cases per 100,000 population. Except per capita income, literacy, and net migration rates, other social determinants showed significant correlation with decline in new TB cases per 100,000 population.Conclusions: Social infrastructure development leads to social capital generation which engenders positive growth in TB program outcomes. Strategies which promote social infrastructure development should find adequate weightage in the overall policy framework for urban TB control in developing countries. © 2014 Chandra et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


PubMed | World Health Organization, National Institute of research in Tuberculosis, New Delhi Center, Government of India and 2 more.
Type: Evaluation Studies | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

India accounts for one-fifth of the global TB incidence. While the exact burden of childhood TB is not known, TB remains one of the leading causes of childhood mortality in India. Bacteriological confirmation of TB in children is challenging due to difficulty in obtaining quality specimens, in the absence of which diagnosis is largely based on clinical judgement. While testing multiple specimens can potentially contribute to higher proportion of laboratory confirmed paediatric TB cases, lack of high sensitivity tests adds to the diagnostic challenge. We describe here our experiences in piloting upfront Xpert MTB/RIF testing, for diagnosis of TB in paediatric population in respiratory and extra pulmonary specimens, as recently recommended by WHO.Xpert MTB/RIF testing was offered to all paediatric (0-14 years) presumptive TB cases (both pulmonary and extra-pulmonary) seeking care at public and private health facilities in the project areas covering 4 cities of India.Under this pilot project, 8,370 paediatric presumptive TB & presumptive DR-TB cases were tested between April and-November 2014. Overall, 9,149 specimens were tested, of which 4,445 (48.6%) were non-sputum specimens. Xpert MTB/RIF gave 9,083 (99.2%, CI 99.0-99.4) valid results. Of the 8,143 presumptive TB cases enrolled, 517 (6.3%, CI 5.8-6.9) were bacteriologically confirmed. TB detection rates were two fold higher with Xpert MTB/RIF as compared to smear microscopy. Further, a total of 60 rifampicin resistant TB cases were detected, of which 38 were detected among 512 presumptive TB cases while 22 were detected amongst 227 presumptive DR-TB cases tested under the project.Xpert MTB/RIF with advantages of quick turnaround testing-time, high proportion of interpretable results and feasibility of rapid rollout, substantially improved the diagnosis of bacteriologically confirmed TB in children, while simultaneously detecting rifampicin resistance.


Yadav R.N.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences | Singh B.K.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences | Sharma S.K.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences | Sharma R.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences | And 12 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background:The objectives of the study were to compare the performance of line probe assay (GenoType MTBDRplus) with solid culture method for an early diagnosis of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), and to study the mutation patterns associated with rpoB, katG and inhA genes at a tertiary care centre in north India.Methods:In this cross-sectional study, 269 previously treated sputum-smear acid-fast bacilli (AFB) positive MDR-TB suspects were enrolled from January to September 2012 at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences hospital, New Delhi. Line probe assay (LPA) was performed directly on the sputum specimens and the results were compared with that of conventional drug susceptibility testing (DST) on solid media [Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) method].Results:DST results by LPA and LJ methods were compared in 242 MDR-TB suspects. The LPA detected rifampicin (RIF) resistance in 70 of 71 cases, isoniazid (INH) resistance in 86 of 93 cases, and MDR-TB in 66 of 68 cases as compared to the conventional method. Overall (rifampicin, isoniazid and MDR-TB) concordance of the LPA with the conventional DST was 96%. Sensitivity and specificity were 98% and 99% respectively for detection of RIF resistance; 92% and 99% respectively for detection of INH resistance; 97% and 100% respectively for detection of MDR-TB. Frequencies of katG gene, inhA gene and combined katG and inhA gene mutations conferring all INH resistance were 72/87 (83%), 10/87 (11%) and 5/87 (6%) respectively. The turnaround time of the LPA test was 48 hours.Conclusion:The LPA test provides an early diagnosis of monoresistance to isoniazid and rifampicin and is highly sensitive and specific for an early diagnosis of MDR-TB. Based on these findings, it is concluded that the LPA test can be useful in early diagnosis of drug resistant TB in high TB burden countries. © 2013 Yadav et al.


Dhuria M.,National Center for Disease Control | Sharma N.,Maulana Azad Medical College | Chopra K.K.,New Delhi Center | Chandra S.,WHO RNTCP Consultant
Indian Journal of Tuberculosis | Year: 2016

Background Universal access implies that all tuberculosis (TB) patients in the community should have access to early, good quality diagnosis and treatment services that are affordable and convenient to the patient in time, place, and person. To achieve universal access, all affected vulnerable and marginalized population like prison inmates should have access to TB diagnostic and treatment services. Objectives To assess the TB control activities in prisons of Delhi, the capital of India, and to suggest interventions for strengthening the program based on the observations. Materials and methods Study was conducted at Tihar Prison, Delhi. TB case notification data from the Revised National TB Control Program (RNTCP) between 2008 and 2012 and log process framework were used to assess various parameters. Results Mean number of patients initiated on TB treatment was 120.6 annually between 2008 and 2012. The RNTCP has been implemented in Delhi Prisons since 2002; however, gaps were identified in human resource, training needs, case finding, diagnostic and treatment services, and supervision on situational analysis. Coordination between prison authorities and RNTCP authorities in relation to initial screening and discharge process appeared to be weak. Conclusion and recommendations Because of the restricted access, vulnerability of the prison population, increase in drug-resistant TB, the TB control activities in the prison require restructuring. Initial screening for early diagnosis and treatment and "Discharge planning" needs to be devised so that there is sufficient time before release or transfer of individuals from prison. This needs strong commitment from the prison health authorities and RNTCP staff. © 2016 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


PubMed | New Delhi Center, WHO RNTCP Consultant, National Center for Disease Control and Maulana Azad Medical College
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Indian journal of tuberculosis | Year: 2016

Universal access implies that all tuberculosis (TB) patients in the community should have access to early, good quality diagnosis and treatment services that are affordable and convenient to the patient in time, place, and person. To achieve universal access, all affected vulnerable and marginalized population like prison inmates should have access to TB diagnostic and treatment services.To assess the TB control activities in prisons of Delhi, the capital of India, and to suggest interventions for strengthening the program based on the observations.Study was conducted at Tihar Prison, Delhi. TB case notification data from the Revised National TB Control Program (RNTCP) between 2008 and 2012 and log process framework were used to assess various parameters.Mean number of patients initiated on TB treatment was 120.6 annually between 2008 and 2012. The RNTCP has been implemented in Delhi Prisons since 2002; however, gaps were identified in human resource, training needs, case finding, diagnostic and treatment services, and supervision on situational analysis. Coordination between prison authorities and RNTCP authorities in relation to initial screening and discharge process appeared to be weak.Because of the restricted access, vulnerability of the prison population, increase in drug-resistant TB, the TB control activities in the prison require restructuring. Initial screening for early diagnosis and treatment and Discharge planning needs to be devised so that there is sufficient time before release or transfer of individuals from prison. This needs strong commitment from the prison health authorities and RNTCP staff.


Porwal C.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences | Kaushik A.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences | Makkar N.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences | Banavaliker J.N.,Rajan Babu Institute for Pulmonary Medicine and Tuberculosis | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background: India with a major burden of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) does not have national level data on this hazardous disease. Since 2006, emergence of extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) is considered a serious threat to global TB control. This study highlights the demographic and clinical risk factors associated with XDR-TB in Delhi. Methods: The study was conducted during April 2007 to May 2010. Six hundred eleven MDR-TB suspects were enrolled from four tertiary care hospitals, treating TB patients in Delhi and the demographic details recorded. Sputum samples were cultured using rapid, automated liquid culture system (MGIT 960). Drug susceptibility testing (DST) for Rifampicin (RIF) and Isoniazid (INH) was performed for all positive M. tuberculosis (M.tb) cultures. All MDR-TB isolates were tested for sensitivity to second-line drugs [Amikacin (AMK), Capreomycin (CAP), Ofloxacin (OFX), Ethionamide (ETA)]. Results/Findings: Of 611, 483 patients were infected with MDR M. tuberculosis (M.tb) strains. Eighteen MDR-TB isolates (3.7%) were XDR M.tb strains. Family history of TB (p 0.045), socioeconomic status (p 0.013), concomitant illness (p 0.001) and previous intake of 2nd line injectable drugs (p 0.001) were significantly associated with occurrence of XDR-TB. Only two of the patients enrolled were HIV seropositive, but had a negative culture for M. tuberculosis. 56/483 isolates were pre-XDR M. tuberculosis, though the occurrence of pre-XDR-TB did not show any significant demographical associations. Conclusions: The actual incidence and prevalence rate of XDR-TB in India is not available, although some scattered data is available. This study raises a concern about existence of XDR-TB in India, though small, signaling a need to strengthen the TB control program for early diagnosis of both tuberculosis and drug resistance in order to break the chains of transmission. © 2013 Porwal et al.


Kundu D.,RNTCP Medical Consultant | Chopra K.,New Delhi Center | Khanna A.,Delhi State | Babbar N.,Assistance Programme Officer | Padmini T.J.,Delhi State TB Programme
Indian Journal of Tuberculosis | Year: 2016

Introduction In India, almost half of all patients with tuberculosis (TB) seek care in the private sector as the first point of care. The national programme is unable to support such TB patients and facilitate effective treatment, as there is no information on TB and Multi or Extensively Drug Resistant TB (M/XDR-TB) diagnosis and treatment in private sector. Objective To improve this situation, Government of India declared TB a notifiable disease for establishing TB surveillance system, to extend supportive mechanism for TB treatment adherence and standardised practices in the private sector. But TB notification from the private sector is a challenge and still a lot needs to be done to accelerate TB notification. Methods Delhi State TB Control Programme had taken initiatives for improving notification of TB cases from the private sector in 2014. Key steps taken were to constitute a state level TB notification committee to oversee the progress of TB notification efforts in the state and direct 'one to one' sensitisation of private practitioners (PPs) (in single PP's clinic, corporate hospitals and laboratories) by the state notification teams with the help of available tools for sensitising the PP on TB notification - TB Notification Government Order, Guidance Tool for TB Notification and Standards of TB Care in India. Results As a result of focussed state level interventions, without much external support, there was an accelerated notification of TB cases from the private sector. TB notification cases from the private sector rose from 341 (in 2013) to 4049 (by the end of March 2015). Conclusion Active state level initiatives have led to increase in TB case notification. © 2016 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


PubMed | WHO Country Office for India, Directorate of Health Services, New Delhi Center and National Professional Officer Tuberculosis
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Indian journal of tuberculosis | Year: 2016

In 2014, Government of India in collaboration with World Health Organization Country Office for India released the policy document on Standards for tuberculosis (TB) care in India after in-depth deliberation with national and international experts. The standards for TB care represent what is expected for quality TB care from the Indian healthcare system including both public and private systems. The details of each standard have been compiled in this review article. It is envisioned that the standards detailed in the manuscript are adapted by all TB care providers across the country.


PubMed | Assistance Programme Officer, New Delhi Center, Medical Officer, State TB Officer and RNTCP Medical Consultant
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Indian journal of tuberculosis | Year: 2016

In India, almost half of all patients with tuberculosis (TB) seek care in the private sector as the first point of care. The national programme is unable to support such TB patients and facilitate effective treatment, as there is no information on TB and Multi or Extensively Drug Resistant TB (M/XDR-TB) diagnosis and treatment in private sector.To improve this situation, Government of India declared TB a notifiable disease for establishing TB surveillance system, to extend supportive mechanism for TB treatment adherence and standardised practices in the private sector. But TB notification from the private sector is a challenge and still a lot needs to be done to accelerate TB notification.Delhi State TB Control Programme had taken initiatives for improving notification of TB cases from the private sector in 2014. Key steps taken were to constitute a state level TB notification committee to oversee the progress of TB notification efforts in the state and direct one to one sensitisation of private practitioners (PPs) (in single PPs clinic, corporate hospitals and laboratories) by the state notification teams with the help of available tools for sensitising the PP on TB notification - TB Notification Government Order, Guidance Tool for TB Notification and Standards of TB Care in India.As a result of focussed state level interventions, without much external support, there was an accelerated notification of TB cases from the private sector. TB notification cases from the private sector rose from 341 (in 2013) to 4049 (by the end of March 2015).Active state level initiatives have led to increase in TB case notification.

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