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Jaroszek H.,New Chemical Syntheses Institute | Dydo P.,Silesian University of Technology
Open Chemistry | Year: 2016

The applicability of ion-exchange membranes (IEMs) in chemical synthesis was discussed based on the existing literature. At first, a brief description of properties and structures of commercially available ion-exchange membranes was provided. Then, the IEM-based synthesis methods reported in the literature were summarized, and areas of their application were discussed. The methods in question, namely: membrane electrolysis, electro-electrodialysis, electrodialysis metathesis, ion-substitution electrodialysis and electrodialysis with bipolar membrane, were found to be applicable for a number of organic and inorganic syntheses and acid/base production or recovery processes, which can be conducted in aqueous and non-aqueous solvents. The number and the quality of the scientific reports found indicate a great potential for IEMs in chemical synthesis. © 2016 Hanna Jaroszek, Piotr Dydo, published by De Gruyter Open.

Jaroszek H.,New Chemical Syntheses Institute | Lis A.,Silesian University of Technology | Dydo P.,Silesian University of Technology
Separation and Purification Technology | Year: 2016

The applicability of KNO3 synthesis by electrodialysis metathesis (ED-M) following: NaNO3 + K2SO4 → KNO3 + Na2SO4 reaction scheme using Ralex PP membranes was examined. The effects of operating parameters: current density, feed concentration and composition on a current efficiency, solute and solvent transport were investigated. Current efficiencies observed were close to 100% and purity of the products exceeded 99%. It was found that electroosmosis contributed to water transport the most. At the same time, osmosis and solute back diffusion did not influence the process. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Malysiak A.,Silesian University of Technology | Synowiec P.M.,Silesian University of Technology | Synowiec P.M.,New Chemical Syntheses Institute
Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification | Year: 2015

A scale-up of crystallization process is a very important yet not solved issue. In this paper the theoretical reasoning considering this problem is presented. The classical method involving preservation of geometrical similarity is discussed. The alternative way to success leading through combination of hydraulic and kinetic requirements is presented. This approach involves departure from geometrical similarity together with primary circulation time (PCT) as a scale-up criterion. © 2015.

Antoniak-Jurak K.,New Chemical Syntheses Institute | Kowalik P.,New Chemical Syntheses Institute | Prochniak W.,New Chemical Syntheses Institute | Rarog-Pilecka W.,Warsaw University of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Fuel Processing Technology | Year: 2015

Abstract The possibility of porous structure improvement of commercial active carbon and its application as Co-Mo-K catalysts support for SGS (SGS - Sour Gas Shift) process has been investigated. Microporous activated carbon has been modified by thermal treatment at 1900°C under helium atmosphere and then subjected to steam gasification in order to obtain supports with different textural properties. Supports have been characterized by used nitrogen physisorption, mercury porosimetry, thermogravimetry (TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Model samples of Co-Mo-K catalysts with the same content of Mo, Co and K (16 wt.% of MoO3 and 4 wt.% of CoO, and the promoter content expressed as K/month ratio was 0.1.) were prepared on modified carbon supports. Catalytic activity measurements were carried out in gradientless reactor in a kinetic region at low partial pressure of reagents. Through modification (in the controlled manner) of properties of carbon material it is possible to obtain good support for sour gas shift process. Simple relationship between surface area of the support and activity of the catalysts has been estimated. The highest activity in the SGS process was determined for the catalyst supported on NRO/1900/33.3. Carbon supported Co-Mo-K catalysts shown even twice higher activity compared to systems supported on flash calcined alumina. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Mikos-Szymanska M.,New Chemical Syntheses Institute | Podolska G.,Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation State Research Institute
Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops and Foods | Year: 2016

We investigated the influence of sowing date and seeding rate on protein composition and quality parameters in two winter spelt cultivars (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta L.) and one common winter wheat cultivar (Triticum aestivum ssp. vulgare L.). Wheat was grown during a 3 year experiment (2007-2010) at the Microplots Experimental Station in Pulawy, Poland. The first experimental factor was the seeding rate: 300, 450 and 600 grains/m2. The second factor was the sowing date: optimal and delayed (2 weeks delayed versus optimal). The third factor was cultivar: two spelt cultivars (Rokosz and STH 8) and one common wheat cultivar (Sukces). Detailed analysis by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography of protein subunits revealed many significant differences between grain samples in relation to the tested sources of variation (sowing date, seeding rate and genotype). Delayed sowing and the lowest seeding rate slightly reduced the relative ratio of gliadins to glutenins, which points to a shift in the elastic properties of gluten proteins. However, neither sowing date nor seeding rate affected wet gluten, gluten index or sedimentation value (based on analysis of variance). These gluten quality parameters were affected only by the genotypes used and the year of cropping. © 2016 Wageningen Academic Publishers.

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