New Chemical Syntheses Institute

Gliwice, Poland

New Chemical Syntheses Institute

Gliwice, Poland
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Kuzdzal E.,New Chemical Syntheses Institute | Cichy B.,New Chemical Syntheses Institute | Kicko-Walczak E.,Institute for Engineering of Plastic Materials and Dyes | Rymarz G.,Institute for Engineering of Plastic Materials and Dyes
Journal of Applied Polymer Science | Year: 2017

The main subject of the present research is to determine the impact of flame retarding fillers on macroscopic properties of composites. The effect on rheological properties of composition unsaturated polyester resin (UP) and flame retardant blend (FR) consisting of expandable graphite (EG) and or not modified silica and: (1) melamine polyphosphate (MPP) with ammonium polyphosphate (APP), (2) MPP with aluminum trihydrate (ATH), (3) only MPP was examined. Next, their influence on thixotropic properties of UP was estimated. FR fillers were compared according to their grain size, specific surface, and shape factor. Rheological properties were determined by applying hysteresis loop surface and thixotropy factor measuring. For the UP + FR composition, the dependence of grain morphological parameters, such as shape factor and specific surface, on viscosity and hysteresis loop surface was determined experimentally. All of the tested composites consisting of UP + 40% FR blend exhibits high flame resistance. An addition of only 2% of modified silica to all of the FR blends caused significant enlargement of hysteresis loop surface and thixotropy index. Hence, for the next stage of the research (an industrial test of GRP pipes casted by the centrifugal method) FR blend without modified silica was chosen. A composite consisting of UP, MP, APP and EG is characterized by lower heat release rate (HRRmax) (ca. 83%) and lower TSR (ca. 80%), ALMR (55%), and MARHE (73%) in comparison to UP resin; and that UP + FR composition exhibit satisfactory rheological properties as well. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2017, 134, 44371. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Mazurek B.,New Chemical Syntheses Institute | Chmiel M.,New Chemical Syntheses Institute | Gorecka B.,New Chemical Syntheses Institute
Food Analytical Methods | Year: 2017

Oily seed extracts were used as research samples in Analytical Laboratory of Raw Materials and Plant Products. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction on an industrial scale was used to prepare extracts from raw plant materials, usually berry seeds: blackcurrant, raspberry, strawberry, and chokeberry. Gas chromatography analysis was performed on Agilent equipment with single quadrupole mass spectrometer detector and split/splitless injector. Fatty acids (FAs) were determined using indirect method, where they were converted to corresponding methyl esters (FAMEs) during trimethylsulfonium hydroxide solution reaction. Comparing the mass spectrum and retention time peak, more than 30 compounds in different oily extracts were qualitatively identified. Quantification of individual fatty acids was based on two different methods. Firstly, it was based on the received peak area, and the results were normalized without correction factor. Secondly, the quantification was based on external calibration curve, for 34 identified fatty acids. The method was validated, and the results, e.g., linearity, precision, limit of detection (LOD), and limit of quantification (LOQ), were presented. © 2017 The Author(s)

Kolodynska D.,Maria Curie Sklodowska University | Bak J.,Maria Curie Sklodowska University | Koziol M.,New Chemical Syntheses Institute | Pylypchuk L.V.,Ukrainian Academy of Sciences
Nanoscale Research Letters | Year: 2017

Magnetic biochar nanocomposites were obtained by modification of biochar by zero-valent iron. The article provides information on the impact of contact time, initial Cd(II), Co(II), Zn(II), and Pb(II) ion concentrations, dose of the sorbents, solution pH and temperature on the adsorption capacity. On the basis of experiments, it was found that the optimum parameters for the sorption process are phase contact time 360 min (after this time, the equilibrium of all concentrations is reached), the dose of sorbent equal to 5 g/dm3, pH 5 and the temperature 295 K. The values of parameters calculated from the kinetic models and isotherms present the best match to the pseudo second order and Langmuir isotherm models. The calculated thermodynamic parameters ∆H0, ∆S0 and ∆G0 indicate that the sorption of heavy metal ions is an exothermic and spontaneous process as well as favoured at lower temperatures, suggesting the physical character of sorption. The solution of nitric acid(V) at the concentration 0.1 mol/dm3 was the best acidic desorbing agent used for regeneration of metal-loaded magnetic sorbents. The physicochemical properties of synthesized composites were characterized by FTIR, SEM, XRD, XPS and TG analyses. The point characteristics of the double layer for biochar pHPZC and pHIEP were designated. © 2017, The Author(s).

Cichy B.,New Chemical Syntheses Institute | Kuzdzal E.,New Chemical Syntheses Institute | Kwiecien J.,New Chemical Syntheses Institute
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2017

The aim of the research was the removal of phosphorous excess in the wastewater from the chlorophosphate flame retardants production process, before transfer the wastewater stream to WWTP. The tested wastewater, contains 7 g/dm3 of phosphorus (P) and COD level is 72–78 g O2/dm3. Removing phosphorus from wastewater was performed by precipitating insoluble iron(III) phosphate(V) with the use of iron(III) chloride. At pH < 2 and molar ratio Fe/P = 1.1 up to 65% phosphorus recovery was achieved; at pH > 3.0 the recovery rate increased up to 70%. The best results were obtained for pH~4.5 and Fe/P ratio about 2.0. The phosphorus removal process is connected with decrease of COD value in wastewater. The best results were obtained for Fe/P in the range 1.5–2.0 and pH ~4. The best results of purification process were obtained with the final COD value 13–23 g O2/dm3 and the total P concentration below 0.001 g/dm3. The flow sheet of the purification wastewater process was proposed. © 2017 Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

Jaroszek H.,New Chemical Syntheses Institute | Dydo P.,Silesian University of Technology
Open Chemistry | Year: 2016

The applicability of ion-exchange membranes (IEMs) in chemical synthesis was discussed based on the existing literature. At first, a brief description of properties and structures of commercially available ion-exchange membranes was provided. Then, the IEM-based synthesis methods reported in the literature were summarized, and areas of their application were discussed. The methods in question, namely: membrane electrolysis, electro-electrodialysis, electrodialysis metathesis, ion-substitution electrodialysis and electrodialysis with bipolar membrane, were found to be applicable for a number of organic and inorganic syntheses and acid/base production or recovery processes, which can be conducted in aqueous and non-aqueous solvents. The number and the quality of the scientific reports found indicate a great potential for IEMs in chemical synthesis. © 2016 Hanna Jaroszek, Piotr Dydo, published by De Gruyter Open.

Malysiak A.,Silesian University of Technology | Synowiec P.M.,Silesian University of Technology | Synowiec P.M.,New Chemical Syntheses Institute
Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification | Year: 2015

A scale-up of crystallization process is a very important yet not solved issue. In this paper the theoretical reasoning considering this problem is presented. The classical method involving preservation of geometrical similarity is discussed. The alternative way to success leading through combination of hydraulic and kinetic requirements is presented. This approach involves departure from geometrical similarity together with primary circulation time (PCT) as a scale-up criterion. © 2015.

Jaroszek H.,New Chemical Syntheses Institute | Lis A.,Silesian University of Technology | Dydo P.,Silesian University of Technology
Separation and Purification Technology | Year: 2016

The applicability of KNO3 synthesis by electrodialysis metathesis (ED-M) following: NaNO3 + K2SO4 → KNO3 + Na2SO4 reaction scheme using Ralex PP membranes was examined. The effects of operating parameters: current density, feed concentration and composition on a current efficiency, solute and solvent transport were investigated. Current efficiencies observed were close to 100% and purity of the products exceeded 99%. It was found that electroosmosis contributed to water transport the most. At the same time, osmosis and solute back diffusion did not influence the process. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Mikos-Szymanska M.,New Chemical Syntheses Institute | Podolska G.,Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation State Research Institute
Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops and Foods | Year: 2016

We investigated the influence of sowing date and seeding rate on protein composition and quality parameters in two winter spelt cultivars (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta L.) and one common winter wheat cultivar (Triticum aestivum ssp. vulgare L.). Wheat was grown during a 3 year experiment (2007-2010) at the Microplots Experimental Station in Pulawy, Poland. The first experimental factor was the seeding rate: 300, 450 and 600 grains/m2. The second factor was the sowing date: optimal and delayed (2 weeks delayed versus optimal). The third factor was cultivar: two spelt cultivars (Rokosz and STH 8) and one common wheat cultivar (Sukces). Detailed analysis by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography of protein subunits revealed many significant differences between grain samples in relation to the tested sources of variation (sowing date, seeding rate and genotype). Delayed sowing and the lowest seeding rate slightly reduced the relative ratio of gliadins to glutenins, which points to a shift in the elastic properties of gluten proteins. However, neither sowing date nor seeding rate affected wet gluten, gluten index or sedimentation value (based on analysis of variance). These gluten quality parameters were affected only by the genotypes used and the year of cropping. © 2016 Wageningen Academic Publishers.

Grzybek G.,Jagiellonian University | Stelmachowski P.,Jagiellonian University | Indyka P.,Jagiellonian University | Inger M.,New Chemical Syntheses Institute | And 3 more authors.
Catalysis Today | Year: 2015

A series of monolithic catalysts with the 0.3 wt.% loading of the (Co,Zn)Co2O4 spinel active phase dispersed on bare and ceria and zincite washcoated cordierite substrates was prepared by impregnation method: (Co,Zn)Co2O4/cordierite, (Co,Zn)Co2O4/ZnO/cordierite and (Co,Zn)Co2O4/CeO2/cordierite. The catalysts were thoroughly characterized (XRD, RS, SEM/TEM/EDX, XRF), and their catalytic deN2O activity was investigated using model gas mixture (2000 ppm N2O/N2), and tail gases (1400 ± 50 ppm N2O, 900 ± 100 ppm NOx, 0.8 ± 0.2 vol.% H2O, 2.0 ± 0.2 vol.% O2) of the nitric acid pilot plant. The reported data points correspond to the measurements performed at possibly the closest tail gas composition. Morphological SEM analysis of the monolith cross-sections indicated the segregation of both ZnO and CeO2 washcoats in the form of islands covered by the (Co,Zn)Co2O4 active phase. The catalytic tests revealed that the monolithic catalysts exhibit high catalytic deN2O activity, reaching X > 96% at 400°C (model gas) and 450°C (tail gases) for the best (Co,Zn)Co2O4/CeO2/cordierite system. It was also found that the specific reaction rate per cobalt spinel weight loading for the monolithic catalysts is even two orders of magnitude higher than in the case of the optimized bulk spinel phase. Yet, the beneficial effect of ceria, dominant in the model gas mixture, is largely dumped in tail gases at low temperature. It is however restored above 400°C, when the poisoning H2O and NOx molecules are desorbed. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Nowak M.,New Chemical Syntheses Institute | Cichy B.,New Chemical Syntheses Institute | Kuzdzal E.,New Chemical Syntheses Institute
Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry | Year: 2016

This paper presents the results of investigations of the kinetics of the first degree of condensation of melamine orthophosphate to melamine pyrophosphate. The investigations were conducted under isothermal conditions and at constant rate of sample heating. The effects of sample mass and heating rate on the kinetic parameters of the process were determined. The activation energy of the process was determined using the approximate Kissinger method and the isoconversional Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose method. A complete analysis of the process was conducted to establish a kinetic model and to determine the activation energy and the value of the pre-exponential factor. It was found that in the initial period of the conversion (up to the value of ca. 0.20), the limiting stage of the process is chemical reaction (first-order reaction model - Mampel F1 equation). At conversion values α above 0.2, the reaction is described by Avrami-Erofeev A2 model. © 2015 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.

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