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Jaroszek H.,New Chemical Syntheses Institute | Dydo P.,Silesian University of Technology
Open Chemistry | Year: 2016

The applicability of ion-exchange membranes (IEMs) in chemical synthesis was discussed based on the existing literature. At first, a brief description of properties and structures of commercially available ion-exchange membranes was provided. Then, the IEM-based synthesis methods reported in the literature were summarized, and areas of their application were discussed. The methods in question, namely: membrane electrolysis, electro-electrodialysis, electrodialysis metathesis, ion-substitution electrodialysis and electrodialysis with bipolar membrane, were found to be applicable for a number of organic and inorganic syntheses and acid/base production or recovery processes, which can be conducted in aqueous and non-aqueous solvents. The number and the quality of the scientific reports found indicate a great potential for IEMs in chemical synthesis. © 2016 Hanna Jaroszek, Piotr Dydo, published by De Gruyter Open.


Malysiak A.,Silesian University of Technology | Synowiec P.M.,Silesian University of Technology | Synowiec P.M.,New Chemical Syntheses Institute
Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification | Year: 2015

A scale-up of crystallization process is a very important yet not solved issue. In this paper the theoretical reasoning considering this problem is presented. The classical method involving preservation of geometrical similarity is discussed. The alternative way to success leading through combination of hydraulic and kinetic requirements is presented. This approach involves departure from geometrical similarity together with primary circulation time (PCT) as a scale-up criterion. © 2015.


Jaroszek H.,New Chemical Syntheses Institute | Lis A.,Silesian University of Technology | Dydo P.,Silesian University of Technology
Separation and Purification Technology | Year: 2016

The applicability of KNO3 synthesis by electrodialysis metathesis (ED-M) following: NaNO3 + K2SO4 → KNO3 + Na2SO4 reaction scheme using Ralex PP membranes was examined. The effects of operating parameters: current density, feed concentration and composition on a current efficiency, solute and solvent transport were investigated. Current efficiencies observed were close to 100% and purity of the products exceeded 99%. It was found that electroosmosis contributed to water transport the most. At the same time, osmosis and solute back diffusion did not influence the process. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Mikos-Szymanska M.,New Chemical Syntheses Institute | Podolska G.,Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation State Research Institute
Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops and Foods | Year: 2016

We investigated the influence of sowing date and seeding rate on protein composition and quality parameters in two winter spelt cultivars (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta L.) and one common winter wheat cultivar (Triticum aestivum ssp. vulgare L.). Wheat was grown during a 3 year experiment (2007-2010) at the Microplots Experimental Station in Pulawy, Poland. The first experimental factor was the seeding rate: 300, 450 and 600 grains/m2. The second factor was the sowing date: optimal and delayed (2 weeks delayed versus optimal). The third factor was cultivar: two spelt cultivars (Rokosz and STH 8) and one common wheat cultivar (Sukces). Detailed analysis by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography of protein subunits revealed many significant differences between grain samples in relation to the tested sources of variation (sowing date, seeding rate and genotype). Delayed sowing and the lowest seeding rate slightly reduced the relative ratio of gliadins to glutenins, which points to a shift in the elastic properties of gluten proteins. However, neither sowing date nor seeding rate affected wet gluten, gluten index or sedimentation value (based on analysis of variance). These gluten quality parameters were affected only by the genotypes used and the year of cropping. © 2016 Wageningen Academic Publishers.


Tuhy L.,Wroclaw University of Technology | Samoraj M.,Wroclaw University of Technology | Witkowska Z.,Wroclaw University of Technology | Rusek P.,New Chemical Syntheses Institute | Chojnacka K.,Wroclaw University of Technology
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2015

The paper presents a pilot-plant for the biosorption and the technology of the production of micronutrient fertilizer components that are based on spent mushroom substrate with a qualitative and a quantitative description as well as an economic analysis thereof. The biomass was enriched with zinc and manganese ions, which resulted in good biosorption capacities: -15.84 and 11.81. mg/g for Zn(II) and Mn(II), respectively. Material losses were/material loss was relatively low (about 10%). The efficiency of the system was over 100. kg of micronutrient component per day and the price of the new preparation was estimated at $4.76 per kg including labor costs and depreciation of the installation.The pilot-plant for biosorption was shown to be an efficient method for the production of new preparations based on waste biomass and constituting an alternative to conventional micronutrient fertilizers. The economic analysis of the system and the production of new preparations shows that it is also a technology which does not require high investment and operation costs. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Nowak M.,New Chemical Syntheses Institute | Cichy B.,New Chemical Syntheses Institute | Kuzdzal E.,New Chemical Syntheses Institute
Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry | Year: 2016

This paper presents the results of study of the kinetics of two-stage condensation of melamine orthophosphate to melamine pyrophosphate and subsequently to melamine polyphosphate. The investigations were conducted under non-isothermal conditions and at constant rate of sample heating. Five different heating rates were applied: 40, 20, 10, 5, 2 K min−1. The activation energy of the process was determined using the approximate Kissinger method and the isoconversional Kissinger–Akahira–Sunose method. The thus determined activation energy is largely dependent on the extent of conversion, indicating the complexity of analyzed process. A complete analysis of the process was presented. Presented calculation of the full kinetic models was best described by stage I equation F1 Mampel and stage II Avrami–Erofeev equation A2. These equations have the best statistical fit. Theoretical kinetic curves were compared with the experimental data, achieving high compliance of theoretical curves with the experimental data. © 2016 The Author(s)


Grzybek G.,Jagiellonian University | Stelmachowski P.,Jagiellonian University | Indyka P.,Jagiellonian University | Inger M.,New Chemical Syntheses Institute | And 3 more authors.
Catalysis Today | Year: 2015

A series of monolithic catalysts with the 0.3 wt.% loading of the (Co,Zn)Co2O4 spinel active phase dispersed on bare and ceria and zincite washcoated cordierite substrates was prepared by impregnation method: (Co,Zn)Co2O4/cordierite, (Co,Zn)Co2O4/ZnO/cordierite and (Co,Zn)Co2O4/CeO2/cordierite. The catalysts were thoroughly characterized (XRD, RS, SEM/TEM/EDX, XRF), and their catalytic deN2O activity was investigated using model gas mixture (2000 ppm N2O/N2), and tail gases (1400 ± 50 ppm N2O, 900 ± 100 ppm NOx, 0.8 ± 0.2 vol.% H2O, 2.0 ± 0.2 vol.% O2) of the nitric acid pilot plant. The reported data points correspond to the measurements performed at possibly the closest tail gas composition. Morphological SEM analysis of the monolith cross-sections indicated the segregation of both ZnO and CeO2 washcoats in the form of islands covered by the (Co,Zn)Co2O4 active phase. The catalytic tests revealed that the monolithic catalysts exhibit high catalytic deN2O activity, reaching X > 96% at 400°C (model gas) and 450°C (tail gases) for the best (Co,Zn)Co2O4/CeO2/cordierite system. It was also found that the specific reaction rate per cobalt spinel weight loading for the monolithic catalysts is even two orders of magnitude higher than in the case of the optimized bulk spinel phase. Yet, the beneficial effect of ceria, dominant in the model gas mixture, is largely dumped in tail gases at low temperature. It is however restored above 400°C, when the poisoning H2O and NOx molecules are desorbed. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Rolewicz M.,New Chemical Syntheses Institute | Rusek P.,New Chemical Syntheses Institute | Mikos-Szymanska M.,New Chemical Syntheses Institute | Cichy B.,New Chemical Syntheses Institute | Dawidowicz M.,New Chemical Syntheses Institute
Waste and Biomass Valorization | Year: 2016

The article presents research results on obtaining phosphorus suspension fertilizers on the basis of microbiologically activated sewage sludge ashes and Morocco phosphate rock. The fertilizers were manufactured with the use of a laboratory reactor, as well as an experimental pilot plant for liquid fertilizers production and then subjected to physicochemical properties tests that have allowed to asses the quality of the obtained products and to appoint new directions for further research on obtaining phosphorus suspension fertilizers on the basis of microbiologically activated renewable resources of phosphorus. The tests have confirmed that it is possible to produce phosphate fertilizer suspension by using the Bacillus megaterium for solubilization of phosphorus, and that the process is not complicated. However, obtained fertilizers are characterized by low P2O5 content. © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Nowak M.,New Chemical Syntheses Institute | Cichy B.,New Chemical Syntheses Institute | Kuzdzal E.,New Chemical Syntheses Institute
Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry | Year: 2016

This paper presents the results of investigations of the kinetics of the first degree of condensation of melamine orthophosphate to melamine pyrophosphate. The investigations were conducted under isothermal conditions and at constant rate of sample heating. The effects of sample mass and heating rate on the kinetic parameters of the process were determined. The activation energy of the process was determined using the approximate Kissinger method and the isoconversional Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose method. A complete analysis of the process was conducted to establish a kinetic model and to determine the activation energy and the value of the pre-exponential factor. It was found that in the initial period of the conversion (up to the value of ca. 0.20), the limiting stage of the process is chemical reaction (first-order reaction model - Mampel F1 equation). At conversion values α above 0.2, the reaction is described by Avrami-Erofeev A2 model. © 2015 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.


PubMed | New Chemical Syntheses Institute and Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Bulletin of entomological research | Year: 2015

Xanthohumol, a prenylated flavonoid from hops, and a supercritical carbon dioxide extract of spent hops were studied for their antifeedant activity against stored product insect pests: Sitophilus granarius L., Tribolium confusum Duv. and Trogoderma granarium Everts. Xanthohumol exhibited medium deterrent activity against the adults of S. granarius L. and larvae of T. confusum Duv. The spent hops extract was more active than xanthohumol towards the adults of T. confusum Duv. The potential application of the crude spent hops extract as a feeding deterrent against the stored product pests is proposed.

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