New Brunswick Laboratory

DuPage County, IL, United States

New Brunswick Laboratory

DuPage County, IL, United States

The New Brunswick Laboratory , is a Government-owned, Government-operated, center of excellence in the measurement science of nuclear materials. It was established in 1949 by the Atomic Energy Commission and was located in New Brunswick, New Jersey. It was relocated between 1975 and 1977 and is now located, as a Federal enclave, on the site of Argonne National Laboratory , about 40 kilometers southwest of Chicago, Illinois. NBL is part the Department of Energy's Office of Science Chicago Office.NBL is the U.S. Government's Nuclear Materials Measurements and Reference Materials Laboratory and the National Certifying Authority for nuclear reference materials and measurement calibration standards. As an internationally recognized Federal laboratory, NBL provides reference materials, measurement and interlaboratory measurement evaluation services, and technical expertise for evaluating measurement methods and safeguards measures in use at other facilities for a variety of Federal program sponsors and customers. NBL functions as a Network Laboratory for the International Atomic Energy Agency . Wikipedia.

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Rothenbacher F.P.,Microbiology and Immunology | Suzuki M.,Kagawa University | Hurley J.M.,Microbiology and Immunology | Montville T.J.,Rutgers University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Bacteriology | Year: 2012

Clostridium difficile is an important, emerging nosocomial pathogen. The transition from harmless colonization to disease is typically preceded by antimicrobial therapy, which alters the balance of the intestinal flora, enabling C. difficile to proliferate in the colon. One of the most perplexing aspects of the C. difficile infectious cycle is its ability to survive antimicrobial therapy and transition from inert colonization to active infection. Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems have been implicated in facilitating persistence after antibiotic treatment. We identified only one TA system in C. difficile strain 630 (epidemic type X), designated MazE-cd and MazF-cd, a counterpart of the well-characterized Escherichia coli MazEF TA system. This E. coli MazF toxin cleaves mRNA at ACA sequences, leading to global mRNA degradation, growth arrest, and death. Likewise, MazF-cd expression in E. coli or Clostridium perfringens resulted in growth arrest. Primer extension analysis revealed that MazF-cd cleaved RNA at the five-base consensus sequence UACAU, suggesting that the mRNAs susceptible to cleavage comprise a subset of total mRNAs. In agreement, we observed differential cleavage of several mRNAs by MazF-cd in vivo, revealing a direct correlation between the number of cleavage recognition sites within a given transcript and its susceptibility to degradation by MazF-cd. Interestingly, upon detailed statistical analyses of the C. difficile transcriptome, the major C. difficile virulence factor toxin B (TcdB) and CwpV, a cell wall protein involved in aggregation, were predicted to be significantly resistant to MazF-cd cleavage. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology.

Hill D.A.,University of Pennsylvania | Hoffmann C.,University of Pennsylvania | Abt M.C.,University of Pennsylvania | Du Y.,University of Pennsylvania | And 5 more authors.
Mucosal Immunology | Year: 2010

Despite widespread use of antibiotics, few studies have measured their effects on the burden or diversity of bacteria in the mammalian intestine. We developed an oral antibiotic treatment protocol and characterized its effects on murine intestinal bacterial communities and immune cell homeostasis. Antibiotic administration resulted in a 10-fold reduction in the amount of intestinal bacteria present and sequencing of 16S rDNA segments revealed significant temporal and spatial effects on luminal and mucosal-associated communities including reductions in luminal Firmicutes and mucosal-associated Lactobacillus species, and persistence of bacteria belonging to the Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria phyla. Concurrently, antibiotic administration resulted in reduced RELMΒ production, and reduced production of interferon-γ and interleukin-17A by mucosal CD4+ T lymphocytes. This comprehensive temporal and spatial metagenomic analyses will provide a resource and framework to test the influence of bacterial communities in murine models of human disease. © 2010 Society for Mucosal Immunology.

Pandya H.J.,University of Maryland University College | Chen W.,Biomedical Imaging Center | Goodell L.A.,New Brunswick Laboratory | Foran D.J.,Biomedical Imaging Center | Desai J.P.,University of Maryland University College
Lab on a Chip - Miniaturisation for Chemistry and Biology | Year: 2014

The mechanical properties of tissue change significantly during the progression from healthy to malignant. Quantifying the mechanical properties of breast tissue within the tumor microenvironment can help to delineate benign from cancerous stages. In this work, we study high-grade invasive ductal carcinoma in comparison with their matched tumor adjacent areas, which exhibit benign morphology. Such paired tissue cores obtained from eight patients were indented using a MEMS-based piezoresistive microcantilever, which was positioned within pre-designated epithelial and stromal areas of the specimen. Field emission scanning electron microscopy studies on breast tissue cores were performed to understand the microstructural changes from benign to malignant. The normal epithelial tissues appeared compact and organized. The appearance of cancer regions, in comparison, not only revealed increased cellularity but also showed disorganization and increased fenestration. Using this technique, reliable discrimination between epithelial and stromal regions throughout both benign and cancerous breast tissue cores was obtained. The mechanical profiling generated using this method has the potential to be an objective, reproducible, and quantitative indicator for detecting and characterizing breast cancer. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

Hagadorn J.W.,Denver Museum of Nature and Science | Miller R.F.,New Brunswick Laboratory
Atlantic Geology | Year: 2011

More than a hundred radial and discoidal structures occur on bed tops of shales and very fine sandstones of the Cambrian (Series 3) King Square Formation in New Brunswick, Canada. These structures typically contain a central sediment plug, radial lineations that extend outward from the central plug, concentric rings, and a broad trough surrounding or underlying ring margins. Originally interpreted as fossils of scyphozoan medusae, these structures could represent one of only a half-dozen mass strandings documented from the fossil record. Instead, re-evaluation of their sedimentology and morphology suggests that they are likely sedimentary structures known as Astropolithon. These sand-volcano-like structures formed by subsurface blistering, cracking, and failure of a near-surface or surface bed, triggered by the upward movement of gases or other fluids from underlying beds. © Atlantic Geology, 2011.

Medina D.J.,University of New Brunswick | Goodell L.,University of New Brunswick | Goodell L.,New Brunswick Laboratory | Glod J.,University of New Brunswick | And 4 more authors.
Haematologica | Year: 2012

Background There is increasing evidence that stromal cell interactions are required for the survival and drug resistance of several types of B-cell malignancies. There is relatively little information regarding the role of the bone marrow/lymphoid microenvironment in the pathogenesis of mantle cell lymphoma. In this study we investigated the interaction of primary mantle cell lymphoma cells with stromal cells in an ex vivo co-culture system. Design and Methods The murine stromal cell line MS-5 and human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells were each co-cultured with primary mantle cell lymphoma cells for up to 7 months. Mantle cell lymphoma cultures alone or combined with human stromal cells were analyzed for cell number, cell migration, nuclear factor-κB activation and drug resistance. Results Co-culture of mantle cell lymphoma cells and human stromal cells results in the survival and proliferation of primary mantle cell lymphoma cells for at least 7 months compared to mantle cell lymphoma cells cultured alone. Mantle cell lymphoma-human stromal cell interactions resulted in activation of the B-cell activating factor/nuclear factor-κB signaling axis resulting in reduced apoptosis, increased mantle cell lymphoma migration and increased drug resistance. Conclusions Direct mantle cell lymphoma-human stromal cell interactions support long-term expansion and increase the drug-resistance of primary mantle cell lymphoma cells. This is due in part to activation of the canonical and non-canonical nuclear factor κB pathways. We also demonstrated the ability of B-cell activating factor to augment CXCL12- and CXCL13-induced cell migration. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that human stromal cell-mantle cell lymphoma interactions play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of mantle cell lymphoma and that analysis of mantle cell lymphoma-human stromal cell interactions may help in the identification of novel targets for therapeutic use. © 2012 Ferrata Storti Foundation.

Tallia A.F.,University of New Brunswick | Amenta P.S.,New Brunswick Laboratory | Jones S.K.,Johnson University
Academic Medicine | Year: 2010

Academic health centers (AHCs) have opportunities to advance the agenda of U.S. health care reform by tying the needs of populations to the AHCs missions and areas of expertise. Serving as accountable care organizations and advancing the agenda of the patient-centered medical home are two important potential actions AHCs can take. By fostering discovery, learning, and care through rational organizational structures that meet the needs of populations and bend the curve of growing health care expenditures, AHCs can lead health care reform in the 21st century. Copyright © by the Association of American Medical Colleges.

Lee J.H.,Cancer Institute of New Jersey | Chen Y.,Cancer Institute of New Jersey | Chan J.L.,Cancer Institute of New Jersey | Qian Y.-W.,New Brunswick Laboratory | Goydos J.S.,Cancer Institute of New Jersey
Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy | Year: 2011

Introduction: Sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) of melanoma patients show evidence of tumor-induced immune dysfunction. Our previous works have shown that IL-10 and IFNγ co-regulate indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO)-expressing immunosuppressive dendritic cells (DCs) in melanoma SLNs. The goal of this study is to examine the relationship between melanoma SLN tumor burden and the degree of SLN immune dysfunction as a model to study tumor-induced immune dysfunction. We hypothesize that SLN tumor burden correlates with the degree of SLN immune dysfunction. Methods: Patients undergoing SLN biopsy for clinical stages I and II melanomas were enrolled in the study under an IRB-approved protocol. During the SLN biopsy, non-hot and non-blue portion of the SLN was harvested, flash-frozen in liquid nitrogen, and mRNA was extracted. By using quantitative real-time PCR, gene expressions of cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, IFNγ, TGFβ, GM-CSF) and the surrogates of immunosuppressive regulatory and effector cells (IDO-expressing DCs and Foxp3-expressing T-regs, respectively) were measured and correlated against the SLN tumor burden (MART1) and against each other. The data were log transformed for normalization. Statistical test used Student's t-test and stepwise multivariate regression analysis. Statistical significance was determined at P < 0.05. Results: SLNs of 74 patients were analyzed in this analysis. Ten of seventy-four patients (13.5%) had tumor-positive SLNs. MART1 gene expression showed a significant difference between the SLN (+) and SLN (-) groups (P = 0.04). Among the various cytokines, multivariate analysis showed that only IFNγ gene expression correlated independently with MART1 gene expression (P < 0.0001, r = 0.91). Similar multivariate analyses show that IFNγ (P < 0.0001, r = 0.78), IL-10 (P = 0.0037, r = 0.60), and TGFβ (P < 0.0001, r = 0.95) gene expressions correlated independently with IDO gene expression. IFNγ (P < 0.0001, r = 0.87) and GM-CSF (P = 0.042, r = 0.76) gene expressions correlated independently with Foxp3 gene expression. MART1 gene expression showed independent correlation with IDO (P = 0.0002, r = 0.75) and Foxp3 (P = 0.0002, r = 0.75) gene expressions. Conclusion: SLN tumor burden correlates with immunosuppressive IDO and Foxp3 expressions within the SLNs of melanoma patients. Our data are consistent with our theory that melanoma induces expressions of specific cytokines, which in turn, stimulate immune suppressors within the SLN. This study also supports our previous finding that IL-10 and IFNγ co-regulate IDO within the SLN. In our data, IFNγ is the sole cytokine that correlates with the SLN tumor burden and seems to play a central role in tumor-induced immunological changes in the SLN immune microenvironment. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Mathew K.,New Brunswick Laboratory | Mason P.,New Brunswick Laboratory | Voeks A.,New Brunswick Laboratory | Narayanan U.,New Brunswick Laboratory
International Journal of Mass Spectrometry | Year: 2012

Certified reference material (CRM) 112-A, uranium metal assay standard, with "natural" U isotopic composition and CRM 145, uranium assay standard solution made by dissolving CRM 112-A metal were analyzed using TRITON Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TIMS) to characterize the uranium isotopic abundances. The certified 235U/ 238U "major" ratio of 0.0072543 (40) in CRM C112-A and CRM 145 is determined using the total evaporation (TE) and modified total evaporation (MTE) methods. In the MTE method, the total evaporation process is interrupted on a regular basis to allow correction of background from peak tailing, internal calibration of the secondary electron multiplier (SEM) detector versus the Faraday cups, peak-centering, and ion source re-focusing. For the "minor" 234U/ 238U and 236U/ 238U ratio measurements using MTE, better precision and accuracy are achieved compared to the TE analyses. The certified 234U/ 238U ratio of 0.000052841 (82) in CRM C112-A and CRM 145 is determined using a conventional analysis technique that incorporates an internal mass bias correction utilizing the measured 235U/ 238U ratio and correction for peak tailing from 235U and 238U. The 236U/ 238U isotope abundance ratio in CRM C112-A and CRM 145 is estimated to be <5 × 10 -9. The CRM 112-A and CRM 145 materials show no evidence for any statistically significant unit-to-unit variations in uranium isotope abundance ratios. The homogeneity of both CRMs is established. The measurements leading to the certification of uranium isotopic abundances are discussed.

Kirn T.J.,New Brunswick Laboratory | Weinstein M.P.,New Brunswick Laboratory
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2013

The detection and identification of microorganisms circulating in the bloodstream of patients is arguably one of the most important functions of the clinical microbiology laboratory. Effective implementation of this function requires careful consideration of specimen collection and processing, culture techniques, result reporting, and, perhaps most importantly, result interpretation by the physician. The purpose of this review is to provide a synopsis of the current state of the art for each of these areas, with the intention of providing adequate information to enable clinical laboratory personnel and physicians to critically evaluate and, if required, improve their current blood culture practices. © 2013 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

Mathew K.J.,New Brunswick Laboratory | O'Connor G.,New Brunswick Laboratory | Hasozbek A.,New Brunswick Laboratory | Kraiem M.,New Brunswick Laboratory
Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry | Year: 2013

Total evaporation (TE) is an analysis technique for the measurement of uranium isotopic abundance ratios using thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). A small mass dependent bias observed in this analytical technique is determined by an external correction factor using well characterized standards (most often certified reference materials, CRMs). The technique had been demonstrated to be highly precise and accurate for major isotope-amount ratio measurements of uranium and plutonium. We compare the performance of the TE analytical technique for uranium isotope ratio measurements on two TIMS instruments (TRITON and MAT261) using well characterized CRMs from NBL and investigate the dependence of the instrumental mass bias on the amount of sample analyzed. It is concluded that the mass bias during a TIMS uranium isotopic analysis by TE is independent of the amount of material analyzed. Unlike the major ratio, minor isotope ratio measurements by TE are biased high due to peak-tailing from the major isotopes. The biases in the minor isotope ratio data using TE are evaluated using well characterized NBL CRMs. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

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