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Worcester, MA, United States

Davis E.A.,York College | Wong W.H.,New Bond Street | Harman W.N.,York College
Journal of Shellfish Research | Year: 2015

Chemical treatment for the control of the spread of zebra mussels in watercraft is typically focused on the early life stages of the mussel. Adult mussels may be spread via attachment or entangling to gear that is brought on board. Sodium chloride is a chemical that has been recommended for use during some aquacultural practices as a mussel disinfectant. The effectiveness of three sodium chloride-based salts (high-grade sodium chloride, iodized table salt, and water softener salt) was examined for their use as an adult zebra mussel decontamination solution. High-grade sodium chloride and iodized table salt both caused complete mortality at 30.000 mg/l in 24 h. Water softener salt caused complete mortality at the same concentration at 48 h. Iodized table salt caused complete mortality at a lower concentration faster than the laboratory-grade sodium chloride. On the basis of the results of this study, iodized table salt may be an acceptable alternative to high-grade sodium chloride for decontamination of zebra mussels, costing much less and leading to an increase in spread-prevention effectiveness. Source

Wong W.H.,New Bond Street | Rabalais N.N.,Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium | Turner R.E.,Louisiana State University
Hydrobiologia | Year: 2015

We hypothesized that the grazing on phytoplankton by the microzooplankton community is size-dependent and, therefore, the top-down control on phytoplankton by microzooplankton community could be one possible mechanism explaining why small phytoplankton become less abundant than large phytoplankton in eutrophic waters. We tested this hypothesis using the dilution method to measure microzooplankton grazing rates and phytoplankton growth rates in the eutrophic waters of the Barataria estuary, southeastern Louisiana. Microzooplankton grazing rates on the slower growing, small phytoplankton (<5 μm) were higher than on the large phytoplankton (>20 μm) which had relatively faster growth rates. The proportional loss of the small, medium, large phytoplankton, and total phytoplankton community by microzooplankton grazing was 44, 53, 0, and 29%, respectively. The relative weakness of top-down grazing control on large phytoplankton by microzooplankton, and the relatively fast growth of large phytoplankton, may be why the average size of phytoplankton, whether isolated cells or colonies, tend to increase in these eutrophic waters and elsewhere. © 2015 Springer International Publishing Switzerland Source

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