New Balance Sports Research Laboratory

Lawrence, MA, United States

New Balance Sports Research Laboratory

Lawrence, MA, United States
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Rodrigues P.,New Balance Sports Research Laboratory | Rodrigues P.,University of Massachusetts Amherst | Chang R.,University of Massachusetts Amherst | Chang R.,Kintec Inc. | And 3 more authors.
Gait and Posture | Year: 2013

Anterior knee pain (AKP) is a common injury among runners and effectively treated with posted insoles and foot orthotics. While clinically effective, the underlying biomechanical mechanisms that bring about these improvements remain debatable. Several methodological factors contribute to the inconsistent biomechanical findings, including errors associated with removing and reattaching markers, inferring foot motion from markers placed externally on a shoe, and redefining segmental coordinate systems between conditions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of medially posted insoles on lower extremity kinematics in runners with and without AKP while trying to limit the influence of these methodological factors. Kinematics of 16 asymptomatic and 17 runners with AKP were collected while running with and without insoles. Reflective markers were attached to the surface of the calcaneus and kept in place (as opposed to detached) between conditions, eliminating the error associated with reattaching markers and redefining segmental coordinate systems. Using these methods, no significant interactions between insole and injury and the main effect of injury were detected (. p>. 0.05); therefore, means were pooled across injury. Insoles, on average, reduced peak eversion by 3.6° (95% confidence interval -2.9° to -4.3°), peak eversion velocity by 53.2°/s (95% confidence interval -32.9 to -73.4) and eversion range of motion by 1.33 (95% confidence interval -0.8 to -1.9). However, while insoles systematically reduced eversion variables, they had small influences on the transverse plane kinematics of the tibia or knee, indicating that they may bring about their clinical effect by influencing other variables. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Chang R.,University of Massachusetts Amherst | Rodrigues P.A.,University of Massachusetts Amherst | Rodrigues P.A.,New Balance Sports Research Laboratory | Van Emmerik R.E.A.,University of Massachusetts Amherst | Hamill J.,University of Massachusetts Amherst
Journal of Biomechanics | Year: 2014

Background: Clinically, plantar fasciitis (PF) is believed to be a result and/or prolonged by overpronation and excessive loading, but there is little biomechanical data to support this assertion. The purpose of this study was to determine the differences between healthy individuals and those with PF in (1) rearfoot motion, (2) medial forefoot motion, (3) first metatarsal phalangeal joint (FMPJ) motion, and (4) ground reaction forces (GRF). Methods: We recruited healthy (n=22) and chronic PF individuals (n=22, symptomatic over three months) of similar age, height, weight, and foot shape (p>0.05). Retro-reflective skin markers were fixed according to a multi-segment foot and shank model. Ground reaction forces and three dimensional kinematics of the shank, rearfoot, medial forefoot, and hallux segment were captured as individuals walked at 1.35ms-1. Results: Despite similarities in foot anthropometrics, when compared to healthy individuals, individuals with PF exhibited significantly (p<0.05) (1) greater total rearfoot eversion, (2) greater forefoot plantar flexion at initial contact, (3) greater total sagittal plane forefoot motion, (4) greater maximum FMPJ dorsiflexion, and (5) decreased vertical GRF during propulsion. Conclusion: These data suggest that compared to healthy individuals, individuals with PF exhibit significant differences in foot kinematics and kinetics. Consistent with the theoretical injury mechanisms of PF, we found these individuals to have greater total rearfoot eversion and peak FMPJ dorsiflexion, which may put undue loads on the plantar fascia. Meanwhile, increased medial forefoot plantar flexion at initial contact and decreased propulsive GRF are suggestive of compensatory responses, perhaps to manage pain. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Rodrigues P.,New Balance Sports Research Laboratory | Rodrigues P.,University of Massachusetts Amherst | TenBroek T.,New Balance Sports Research Laboratory | TenBroek T.,University of Massachusetts Amherst | And 2 more authors.
Gait and Posture | Year: 2014

Background: Little biomechanical evidence exists to support the association between excessive foot pronation and anterior knee pain (AKP). One issue could be the way excessive pronation has been defined. Recent evidence has suggested that evaluating pronation in the context of the joint's available range of motion (ROM, anatomical threshold) provides greater insight on when pronation contributes to injury. Theoretically, quantifying the amount of time the joint has to respond before reaching end range (neuromuscular threshold) could provide additional insight. Therefore the purpose of this study was to use a neuromuscular threshold, the time to contact (TtC) the ankle joint complex's ROM boundary, to evaluate runners with and without AKP. Methods: Nineteen healthy and seventeen runners with AKP had their ROM and running biomechanics evaluated. The TtC was calculated using each individual's angular distance from end range (eversion buffer) and eversion velocity. Data were recorded over ten stance phases and evaluated using a one way analysis of variance and 95% confidence intervals. Results: Runners with AKP had significantly shorter TtC the joint's ROM boundary when compared to healthy runners (64.0. ms vs. 35.6. ms, p= 0.01). While not statistically significant, this shorter TtC was in large part due to having a smaller eversion buffer, however velocity was found to have a substantial influence on the TtC of select individuals. These results provide evidence that a link between pronation and AKP exists when using anatomical and neuromuscular based thresholds. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Rodrigues P.,University of Massachusetts Amherst | Rodrigues P.,New Balance Sports Research Laboratory | TenBroek T.,University of Massachusetts Amherst | TenBroek T.,New Balance Sports Research Laboratory | Hamill J.,University of Massachusetts Amherst
Journal of Applied Biomechanics | Year: 2013

"Excessive" pronation is often implicated as a risk factor for anterior knee pain (AKP). The amount deemed excessive is typically calculated using the means and standard deviations reported in the literature. However, when using this method, few studies find an association between pronation and AKP. An alternative method of defining excessive pronation is to use the joints' available range of motion (ROM). The purposes of this study were to (1) evaluate pronation in the context of the joints' ROM and (2) compare this method to traditional pronation variables in healthy and injured runners. Thirty-six runners (19 healthy, 17 AKP) had their passive pronation ROM measured using a custom-built device and a motion capture system. Dynamic pronation angles during running were captured and compared with the available ROM. In addition, traditional pronation variables were evaluated. No significant differences in traditional pronation variables were noted between healthy and injured runners. In contrast, injured runners used significantly more of their available ROM, maintaining a 4.21° eversion buffer, whereas healthy runners maintained a 7.25° buffer (P = .03, ES = 0.77). Defining excessive pronation in the context of the joints' available ROM may be a better method of defining excessive pronation and distinguishing those at risk for injury. © 2013 Human Kinetics, Inc.

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