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Las Vegas, NV, United States

Brasky T.M.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Bonner M.R.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Moysich K.B.,Roswell Park Cancer Institute | Ambrosone C.B.,Roswell Park Cancer Institute | And 8 more authors.
Cancer Causes and Control | Year: 2010

Objective: Chronic inflammation is suspected to have a role in breast carcinogenesis. Results of studies of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and breast cancer have been inconsistent. Timing of exposure and analysis of individual NSAIDs should be considered. Methods: We conducted a population-based case-control study in western New York State between 1996 and 2001. Cases, 35-79 years, had incident, primary, histologically confirmed breast cancer (n = 1,170). Controls (n = 2,115) were randomly selected from NY Department of Motor Vehicles records (<65 years) or Medicare rolls (≥65 years). Participants were queried on use of aspirin, ibuprofen, and acetaminophen in the year prior and on aspirin during adulthood. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results: Recent aspirin use was inversely associated with breast cancer risk (adjusted OR 0.80, 95% CI: 0.68-0.94); the strongest reduction in risk was observed among those who took ≥2 pills/day on days that aspirin was taken (OR 0.74, 95% CI: 0.61-0. 90). Adult lifetime use was also associated with breast cancer risk (>10 days/month, adjusted OR 0.68, 95% CI: 0.46-1.00). Use of ibuprofen or acetaminophen was not associated with breast cancer. Conclusions: This is the first study to investigate the association of adult lifetime aspirin intake with breast cancer risk. Our findings provide evidence that aspirin use throughout a woman's life may confer some benefit. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Brasky T.M.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Brasky T.M.,Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center | Bonner M.R.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Moysich K.B.,Roswell Park Cancer Institute | And 9 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2011

Chronic inflammation has been consistently associated with cancers of several sites, including the breast, and inhibition of inflammation through the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has been inversely associated with risk. As NSAIDs bind with cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), genetic variation in COX-2 may influence breast cancer risk by affecting inflammatory response and response to NSAID use. We identified eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for COX-2 and examined their association with risk of breast cancer in a population-based case-control study in Western New York. Cases had incident, first primary, histologically confirmed breast cancer (n = 1077). Controls (n = 1910) were randomly selected from NY Department of Motor Vehicles records (<65) or Medicare rolls (≥65). Participants were queried on adult lifetime use of aspirin and recent use of ibuprofen. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). One SNP, rs2745559, was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.03-1.46). Associations with other variants were not evident. Significant interaction (P interaction = 0.04) between recent aspirin use and rs4648261 was also observed. Variation in COX-2 was modestly associated with breast cancer risk, indicating that COX-2 may play a role in breast carcinogenesis. Better understanding of the role of COX-2 genetic variation and interaction with NSAID use in breast carcinogenesis has potential to inform prevention strategies. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source


Brasky T.M.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Bonner M.R.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Moysich K.B.,Roswell Park Cancer Institute | Ambrosone C.B.,Roswell Park Cancer Institute | And 9 more authors.
Cancer Causes and Control | Year: 2011

Use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has been associated with reduced risk of breast cancer, though findings have been inconsistent. This inconsistency may result from differences in etiology for breast tumors of different subtypes. We examined the association between NSAID use and breast cancer characterized by molecular subtypes in a population-based case-control study in Western New York. Cases (n = 1,170) were women with incident, primary, histologically confirmed breast cancer. Controls (n = 2,115) were randomly selected from NY Department of Motor Vehicles records (<65 years) or Medicare rolls (≥65 years). Participants answered questions regarding their use of aspirin and ibuprofen in the year prior to interview and their use of aspirin throughout their adult life. Logistic regression models estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Recent and lifetime aspirin use was associated with reduced risk, with no differences by subtype. Recent use of ibuprofen was significantly associated with increased risk of ER+/PR+(OR 1.33, 95% CI: 1.09-1.62), HER2- (OR 1.27, 95% CI: 1.05-1.53), and p53- breast cancers (OR 1.28, 95% CI: 1.04-1.57), as well as luminal A or B breast cancers. These findings support the hypothesis of heterogeneous etiologies of breast cancer subtypes and that aspirin and ibuprofen vary in their effects. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Andriankaja O.,University of Puerto Rico at San Juan | Trevisan M.,Nevada System of Higher Education | Falkner K.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Dorn J.,State University of New York at Buffalo | And 4 more authors.
Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology | Year: 2011

Background: The direct effect of periodontal pathogens on atherosclerotic plaque development has been suggested as a potential mechanism for the observed association between periodontal disease and coronary heart disease, but few studies have tested this theory. Objectives: (i) To assess the association of periodontal pathogens in periodontal pockets with the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and (ii) to assess whether an increase in the number of periodontal bacterial species increases the risk of MI. Methods: A total of 313 cases and 747 controls, consisting of Caucasian men and women from Western New York, aged 35 to 69 years, were recruited for this study. The presence of microorganisms was assessed by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, using species-specific polyclonal and monoclonal serodiagnostic reagents. The presence of six periodontal pathogens, Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), Tannerella forsythensis (Tf), Prevotella intermedia (Pi), Campylobacter recta (Cr), Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn), and Eubacterium saburreum (Es), and their co-occurrence (0-6) was compared with the odds of having myocardial infarction. Results: Univariate analyses revealed a higher percentage of the presence of each bacterium in cases compared to controls. In multivariate analyses, only Tf and Pi were statistically associated with an increase in the odds of having MI [Odds ratio OR = 1.62; 95% CI (1.18-2.22); and 1.40; 95% (1.02-1.92), respectively] after adjusting for age, gender, education, cholesterol, high blood pressure, diabetes, and total pack-years of cigarette smoking. An increase in the number of different periodontal bacteria in pockets was also found to increase the odds of MI [adjusted OR = 1.14; 95% CI (1.03-1.26)]. Participants who had three species or more of periodontal pathogens had about 2-fold increase in odds of having nonfatal MI than those who did not have any type of bacterial species [OR = 2.01 (1.31-3.08)]. Conclusion: The presence of periodontal pathogens, specifically Tf or Pi, and an increase in total burden of periodontal pathogenic species were both associated with increased odds of having MI. However, further studies are needed to better assess any causal relationship, as well as the biological mechanisms underlying this association. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source


Grant
Agency: NSF | Branch: Cooperative Agreement | Program: | Phase: RESEARCH INFRASTRUCTURE IMPROV | Award Amount: 12.00M | Year: 2013

In this five-year project, Nevada Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (NV-EPSCoR) addresses critical practical problems of relevance to large-scale solar installations in arid desert lands. The project combines research on solar thermal energy generation with the understanding of eco-hydrological impacts of solar installation in desert regions to advance the economic and eco-friendly viability of solar electricity generation. This combination distinguishes this project from several other existing solar energy projects, thus making it a unique model study of relevance to Nevada and other solar installations in the US and around the world. The major participating institutions in this project are: the University of Nevada, Reno, the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, and the University of Nevada Desert Research Institute. Faculty and students from the College of Southern Nevada, Truckee Meadows Community College, and Nevada State College will also be engaged in this project.

Intellectual Merit
Despite plentiful sunlight and cloud-free days which are conducive for solar energy collection, arid regions experience frequent dust storms and receive little or no rain. Dust accumulated on solar panels absorb sunlight and decrease the efficiency of solar cells; water scarcity increases the cost of meeting the cooling needs of solar thermal collectors. This project seeks to develop engineering/technological solutions to repel dust and minimize water usage in large solar installations. In addition, it examines the desert ecosystem responses and provides science-based information for designing effective ways to manage and mitigate environmental impacts associated with large-scale solar installations. The award establishes a research facility, called the Nevada Environment, Water, and Solar Testing and Research Facility (NEW-STAR) during this project. Enhancements to the existing cyberinfrastructure capabilities are effected through the creation of the Nevada Research Data Center (NRDC) for data management and communication. These new facilities promote collaboration among teams of interdisciplinary scientists and engineers on solar-energy-water-environment nexus research and education theme.

Broader Impacts
This project has the potential to develop less costly and thus more competitive solar electricity generation techniques aimed at minimizing both water usage and environmental degradation. The technological solutions to be developed are applicable to other solar energy installations nationally and globally. Interactions among scientists and collaboration at regional, national, and international levels as well as partnerships with energy industry and environmental agencies in Nevada are expected to promote economic development in the state. The project involves 41 faculty, 24 technicians, 43 graduate students, and 38 undergraduate students as participants. The project offers the following programs aimed at pre-college and undergraduate students with a focus to attract underrepresented minority groups, K-12 teachers, and the general public: (1) Pre-college bridging programs to assist K-12 students to develop academic skills and career pathways; (2) Undergraduate research opportunity programs (UROP) to provide research experience at the solar energy-water-environment nexus; (3) Undergraduate and graduate hands-on training (HOT) to facilitate transition from student to professional; activities include industry internships and laboratory experiences in solar energy technology, and proposal writing workshops; (4) Teacher professional development programs that engage K-12 teachers in research, field work, and working with graduate students; (5) programs to educate K-12 students on project related themes and inform their families of opportunities for Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) careers; and (6) Online learning laboratories, which provide wireless access to cyber learning materials and enhance public understanding of solar energy and related impacts on water and environment.

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