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Brincks A.M.,University of Miami | Feaster D.J.,University of Miami | Burns M.J.,Nevada State College | Mitrani V.B.,University of Miami
Psychology, Health and Medicine | Year: 2010

The physician-patient relationship is important to the successful delivery of health care. Health locus of control (HLOC) of the patient, the extent to which individuals attribute their health to their own actions or to external agents, may affect the patient-provider relationship. This study examined the influences of HIV and HLOC on trust in physician among a population of predominantly minority women and their family members. Powerful others HLOC demonstrated a positive relationship with trust in physician and chance HLOC had a negative relationship with trust in physician. HIV moderated both of these relationships. © 2010 Taylor & Francis. Source

Mantooth S.J.,University of Nevada, Las Vegas | Mantooth S.J.,Nevada State College | Hafner D.J.,University of New Mexico | Bryson R.W.,University of Washington | Riddle B.R.,University of Nevada, Las Vegas
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society | Year: 2013

We investigated the biogeographic history of antelope squirrels, genus Ammospermophilus, which are widely distributed across the deserts and other arid lands of western North America. We combined range-wide sampling of all currently recognized species of Ammospermophilus with a multilocus data set to infer phylogenetic relationships. We then estimated divergence times within identified clades of Ammospermophilus using fossil-calibrated and rate-calibrated molecular clocks. Lastly, we explored generalized distributional changes of Ammospermophilus since the last glacial maximum using species distribution models, and assessed responses to Quaternary climate change by generating demographic parameter estimates for the three wide-ranging clades of A.leucurus. From our phylogenetic estimates we inferred strong phylogeographic structure within Ammospermophilus and the presence of three well-supported major clades. Initial patterns of historical divergence were coincident with dynamic alterations in the landscape of western North America, and the formation of regional deserts during the Late Miocene and Pliocene. Species distribution models and demographic parameter estimates revealed patterns of recent population expansion in response to glacial retreat. When combined with evidence from co-distributed taxa, the historical biogeography of Ammospermophilus provides additional insight into the mechanisms that impacted diversification of arid-adapted taxa across the arid lands of western North America. We propose species recognition of populations of the southern Baja California peninsula to best represent our current understanding of evolutionary relationships among genetic units of Ammospermophilus. © 2013 The Linnean Society of London. Source

Parvaz M.A.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Konova A.B.,New York University | Proudfit G.H.,State University of New York at Stony Brook | Dunning J.P.,Nevada State College | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2015

Learning can be guided by unexpected success or failure, signaled via dopaminergic positive reward prediction error (+RPE) and negative reward-prediction error (–RPE) signals, respectively. Despite conflicting empirical evidence, RPE signaling is thought to be impaired in drug addiction. To resolve this outstanding question, we studied as a measure of RPE the feedback negativity (FN) that is sensitive to both reward and the violation of expectation. We examined FN in 25 healthy controls; 25 individuals with cocaine-use disorder (CUD)whotested positive for cocaine on the study day(CUD+), indicating cocaine use within the past 72 h; and in 25 individuals with CUD who tested negative for cocaine (CUD–). EEG was acquired while the participants performed a gambling task predicting whether they would win or lose money on each trial given three known win probabilities (25, 50, or 75%). FN was scored for the period in each trial when the actual outcome (win or loss) was revealed. A significant interaction between prediction, outcome, and group revealed that controls showed increased FN to unpredicted compared with predicted wins (i.e., intact +RPE) and decreased FN to unpredicted compared with predicted losses (i.e., intact –RPE). However, neither CUD subgroup showed FN modulation to loss (i.e., impaired –RPE), and unlike CUD+ individuals, CUD– individuals also did not show FN modulation to win (i.e., impaired+RPE). Thus, using FN, the current study directly documents –RPE deficits in CUD individuals. The mechanisms underlying –RPE signaling impairments in addiction may contribute to the disadvantageous nature of excessive drug use, which can persist despite repeated unfavorable life experiences (e.g., frequent incarcerations). © 2015 the authors. Source

Boyle W.A.,Kansas State University | Sigel B.J.,Nevada State College
Biological Conservation | Year: 2015

Tropical forest fragmentation influences community composition via differential species-level effects. Avian responses to fragmentation at La Selva Biological Station are, in part, responsible for the particular concern over the fate of understory insectivorous species. However, since the 1990s, much previously deforested land within and surrounding La Selva has reverted to forest, providing an opportunity to test hypotheses explaining ongoing avifaunal change. Analyses of 23. years (1989-2011) of Christmas Bird Counts reveal that 63 of 202 species have increased whereas 44 are declining, with declines occurring more rapidly than increases. Habitat association was an important predictor of population trends, as understory birds continue to decline whereas forest generalists increased. Our results differ from previous work in the tropics by revealing that, at La Selva, insectivores are not currently suffering greater declines than birds of other dietary guilds. Instead, body size was more strongly associated with population change than was diet, with smaller birds having more negative population trends than larger birds. These results suggest that we must consider additional hypotheses that may explain ongoing population declines of tropical birds. In particular, the associations between population trends and body size implicate physiological mechanisms influencing population change, which may result from direct or indirect consequences of changing climates. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Teramoto M.,University of Utah | Petron D.J.,University of Utah | Cross C.L.,Nevada State College | Willick S.E.,University of Utah
Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2015

Background: The majority of studies on concussion in the National Football League (NFL) focus on testing, evaluation, and outcomes. Meanwhile, there is a paucity of research on how a team’s style of play influences the risk of concussion. Hypothesis: Style of play, such as offensive and defensive strategies, is associated with the rate of concussions in the NFL. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: The current study retrospectively analyzed data from the 2012 to 2014 NFL regular seasons. Reported numbers of concussions were stratified by each team and each position and were compared based on style of play, including offensive scheme (West Coast offense, Air Coryell offense, or other offensive schemes) and defensive alignment (3-4 or 4-3), attempts statistics, per-drive statistics, and offensive and defensive productions, along with strength of schedule (SoS) and team quality measured by simple rating system (SRS). Data analyses included descriptive statistics, 1-way analysis of variance, correlation analysis, and regression analysis. Results: There were 437 documented concussions during the 2012 to 2014 NFL regular seasons, with a mean 4.6 concussions per season per team. In general, players most involved in pass plays reported more concussions. The number of concussions sustained by offensive players was significantly higher among the teams adopting the West Coast offense (mean, 3.0) than among those utilizing the Air Coryell offense (mean, 1.6; P =.006) or those with non–West Coast offenses combined (mean, 1.9; P =.004). The multiple regression analysis revealed that the West Coast offense or not, SoS, and SRS explained 25.3% of the variance in the number of concussions by offensive players. After accounting for SRS, the West Coast offense was found to be a significant predictor of the number of concussions (P =.007), while there was a tendency for SoS to be inversely associated with the number of concussions (P =.105). None of the variables for attempts statistics, per-drive statistics, and offensive production were significantly associated with the number of concussions in the regression analysis. Conclusion: In the NFL, players most involved in pass plays appear to be at increased risk for concussions. The West Coast offense may be associated with a greater risk of concussion. Furthermore, teams with easier schedules may have more players sustaining concussions. © 2015, © The Author(s) 2015. Source

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