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Acuna A.I.,Austral University of Chile | Esparza M.,Austral University of Chile | Kramm C.,Austral University of Chile | Beltran F.A.,Austral University of Chile | And 9 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2013

Huntington's disease has been associated with a failure in energy metabolism and oxidative damage. Ascorbic acid is a powerful antioxidant highly concentrated in the brain where it acts as a messenger, modulating neuronal metabolism. Using an electrophysiological approach in R6/2 HD slices, we observe an abnormal ascorbic acid flux from astrocytes to neurons, which is responsible for alterations in neuronal metabolic substrate preferences. Here using striatal neurons derived from knock-in mice expressing mutant huntingtin (STHdhQ cells), we study ascorbic acid transport. When extracellular ascorbic acid concentration increases, as occurs during synaptic activity, ascorbic acid transporter 2 (SVCT2) translocates to the plasma membrane, ensuring optimal ascorbic acid uptake for neurons. In contrast, SVCT2 from cells that mimic HD symptoms (dubbed HD cells) fails to reach the plasma membrane under the same conditions. We reason that an early impairment of ascorbic acid uptake in HD neurons could lead to early metabolic failure promoting neuronal death. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source


Matus S.,Neurounion Biomedical Foundation | Valenzuela V.,University of Chile | Medinas D.B.,University of Chile | Hetz C.,University of Chile | Hetz C.,Harvard University
International Journal of Cell Biology | Year: 2013

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most frequent paralytic disease in adults. Most ALS cases are considered sporadic with no clear genetic component. The disruption of protein homeostasis due to chronic stress responses at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the accumulation of abnormal protein inclusions are extensively described in ALS mouse models and patient-derived tissue. Recent studies using pharmacological and genetic manipulation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), an adaptive reaction against ER stress, have demonstrated a complex involvement of the pathway in experimental models of ALS. In addition, quantitative changes in ER stress-responsive chaperones in body fluids have been proposed as possible biomarkers to monitor the disease progression. Here we review most recent advances attributing a causal role of ER stress in ALS. © 2013 Soledad Matus et al. Source


Cornejo V.H.,University of Chile | Pihan P.,University of Chile | Vidal R.L.,Neurounion Biomedical Foundation | Hetz C.,University of Chile | Hetz C.,Harvard University
IUBMB Life | Year: 2013

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a key subcellular compartment involved in the folding and maturation of around one-third of the total proteome. Accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER lumen engages a signal transduction pathway known as unfolded protein response (UPR) that feedback to recover ER homeostasis or to trigger apoptosis of irreversible damaged cells. The UPR is initiated by three main stress sensors including protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK), activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), and inositol-requiring protein 1α (IRE1α), which reprogram the genome through the control of downstream transcription factors. In this article, the authors have reviewed most relevant studies uncovering the physiological function of the UPR in different organs and tissues based on the phenotypes observed after genetic manipulation of the pathway in vivo. Biomedical applications of targeting the UPR on a disease context are also discussed. © 2013 IUBMB Life, 65(12):962-975, 2013. © 2013 IUBMB. Source


Matus S.,Neurounion Biomedical Foundation | Lopez E.,University of Chile | Valenzuela V.,University of Chile | Nassif M.,University of Chile | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress represents an early pathological event in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). ATF4 is a key ER stress transcription factor that plays a role in both adaptation to stress and the activation of apoptosis. Here we investigated the contribution of ATF4 to ALS. ATF4 deficiency reduced the rate of birth of SOD1G86R transgenic mice. The fraction of ATF4-/--SOD1G85R transgenic mice that were born are more resistant to develop ALS, leading to delayed disease onset and prolonged life span. ATF4 deficiency completely attenuated the induction of pro-apoptotic genes, including BIM and CHOP, and also led to quantitative changes in the ER protein homeostasis network. Unexpectedly, ATF4 deficiency enhanced mutant SOD1 aggregation at the end stage of the disease. Studies in the motoneuron cell line NSC34 demonstrated that knocking down ATF4 enhances mutant SOD1 aggregation possibly due to alteration in the redox status of the cell. Our results support a functional role of ATF4 in ALS, offering a novel target for disease intervention. © 2013 Matus et al. Source


Vidal R.L.,Neurounion Biomedical Foundation | Vidal R.L.,University of Chile | Matus S.,Neurounion Biomedical Foundation | Matus S.,University of Chile | And 4 more authors.
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences | Year: 2014

The most prevalent neurodegenerative disorders involve protein misfolding and the aggregation of specific proteins. Autophagy is becoming an attractive target to treat neurodegenerative disorders through the selective degradation of abnormally folded proteins by the lysosomal pathway. However, accumulating evidence indicates that autophagy impairment at different regulatory steps may contribute to the neurodegenerative process. Thus, a complex scenario is emerging where autophagy may play a dual role in neurodegenerative diseases by causing the downstream effect of promoting the degradation of misfolded proteins and an upstream effect where its deregulation perturbs global proteostasis, contributing to disease progression. Challenges in the future development of therapeutic strategies to target the autophagy pathway are discussed. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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