Neurosurgery Pain Research Institute

Cape Saint Claire, MD, United States

Neurosurgery Pain Research Institute

Cape Saint Claire, MD, United States
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Solis-Lopez A.,University of Heidelberg | Kriebs U.,University of Heidelberg | Marx A.,University of Heidelberg | Mannebach S.,Saarland University | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2017

The activation of mast cells (MC) is part of the innate and adaptive immune responses and depends on Ca2+ entry across the plasma membrane, leading to the release of preformed inflammatory mediators by degranulation or by de novo synthesis. The calcium conducting channels of the TRPV family, known by their thermo and osmotic sensitivity, have been proposed to be involved in the MC activation in murine, rat, and human mast cell models. So far, immortalized mast cell lines and nonspecific TRPV blockers have been employed to characterize the role of TRPV channels in MC. The aim of this work was to elucidate the physiological role of TRPV channels by using primary peritoneal mast cells (PMCs), a model of connective tissue type mast cells. Our RT-PCR and NanoString analysis identified the expression of TRPV1, TRPV2, and TRPV4 channels in PMCs. For determination of the functional role of the expressed TRPV channels we performed measurements of intracellular free Ca2+ concentrations and beta-hexosaminidase release in PMCs obtained from wild type and mice deficient for corresponding TRPV1, TRPV2 and TRPV4 in response to various receptor-mediated and physical stimuli. Furthermore, substances known as activators of corresponding TRPV-channels were also tested using these assays. Our results demonstrate that TRPV1, TRPV2, and TRPV4 do not participate in activation pathways triggered by activation of the high-affinity receptors for IgE (FcϵRI), Mrgprb2 receptor, or Endothelin-1 receptor nor by heat or osmotic stimulation in mouse PMCs. © 2017 Solis-López et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Jha M.K.,Kyungpook National University | Jeon S.,Kyungpook National University | Jeon S.,Neurosurgery Pain Research Institute | Jin M.,Kyungpook National University | And 4 more authors.
Experimental Neurology | Year: 2014

Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) is an acute phase protein induced in response to injury, infection or other inflammatory stimuli. Based on the previously reported involvement of LCN2 in chemokine induction and in the recruitment of neutrophils at the sites of infection or tissue injury, we investigated the role of LCN2 in the pathogenesis of chronic/persistent inflammatory pain hypersensitivity. In the complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced chronic inflammatory pain model, LCN2 expression was strongly induced in the ipsilateral hindpaws, peaking at 12. h after CFA injection and then gradually subsiding. In CFA-injected hindpaw tissues, LCN2 and its receptor 24p3R were mainly expressed in infiltrating neutrophils and macrophages. CFA-induced thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia were significantly diminished in Lcn2-deficient mice compared to wild-type animals. Furthermore, neutrophil infiltration, myeloperoxidase activity, expression of TNF-α, IL-1β and MIP-2 in CFA-injected hindpaws, and spinal glial activation were markedly reduced by Lcn2 deficiency. An intraplantar injection of recombinant LCN2 protein induced thermal and mechanical hypersensitivities in naïve mice, and this was accompanied by neutrophil and macrophage infiltration into the hindpaws and glial activation in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Taken together, our results show that inflammatory cell-derived LCN2 at the sites of inflammation plays important roles in central sensitization and the subsequent nociceptive behavior in the rodent model of chronic inflammatory pain. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Qu L.,Neurosurgery Pain Research Institute | Qu L.,Yale University | Fu K.,Yale University | Shimada S.G.,Yale University | Lamotte R.H.,Yale University
Journal of Neurophysiology | Year: 2017

Persistent itch often accompanies allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unexplored. We previously demonstrated that CXCL10/CXCR3 signaling activated a subpopulation of cutaneous primary sensory neurons and mediated itch response after contact hypersensitivity (CHS), a murine model of ACD, induced by squaric acid dibutylester. The purpose of this study was to determine the ionic mechanisms underlying CXCL10-induced neuronal activation and allergic itch. In whole cell recordings, CXCL10 triggered a current in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons innervating the area of CHS. This current was modulated by intracellular Cl- and blocked by the general Cl- channel inhibitors. Moreover, increasing Ca2+ buffering capacity reduced this current. In addition, blockade of Cl- channels significantly suppressed CXCL10-induced Ca2+ response. In behavioral tests, injection of CXCL10 into CHS site exacerbated itch-related scratching behaviors. Moreover, the potentiating behavioral effects of CXCL10 were attenuated by either of two Cl- channel blockers. Thus we suggest that the Cl- channel acts as a downstream target mediating the excitatory and pruritic behavioral effects of CXCL10. Cl- channels may provide a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of allergic itch in which CXCL10/CXCR3 signaling may participate. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The ionic mechanisms underlying CXCL10-induced neuronal activation and allergic itch are largely unexplored. This study revealed that CXCL10 evoked an ionic current mainly carried by Cl- channels. We suggest that Cl- channels are likely key molecular candidates responsible for the CXCL10-evoked neuronal activation and itch-like behaviors in a murine model of allergic contact dermatitis induced by the antigen squaric acid dibutylester. Cl- channels may emerge as a promising drug target for the treatment of allergic itch in which CXCL10/CXCR3 signaling may participate. © 2017 the American Physiological Society.


Munns C.H.,Neurosurgery Pain Research Institute | Chung M.-K.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | Sanchez Y.E.,National University of Colombia | Sanchez Y.E.,Pontifical Xavierian University | Caterina M.J.,Neurosurgery Pain Research Institute
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2015

Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) has been shown to alter its ionic selectivity profile in a time- and agonistdependent manner. One hallmark of this dynamic process is an increased permeability to large cations such as N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMDG). In this study, we mutated residues throughout the TRPV1 pore domain to identify loci that contribute to dynamic large cation permeability. Using resiniferatoxin (RTX) as the agonist, we identified multiple gain-of-function substitutions within the TRPV1 pore turret (N628P and S629A), pore helix (F638A), and selectivity filter (M644A) domains. In all of these mutants, maximum NMDG permeability was substantially greater than that recorded in wild type TRPV1, despite similar or even reduced sodium current density. Two additional mutants, located in the pore turret (G618W) and selectivity filter (M644I), resulted in significantly reduced maximumNMDG permeability. M644A and M644I also showed increased and decreased minimum NMDG permeability, respectively. The phenotypes of this panel of mutants were confirmed by imaging the RTX-evoked uptake of the large cationic fluorescent dye YO-PRO1. Whereas none of the mutations selectively altered capsaicin-induced changes in NMDG permeability, the loss-offunction phenotypes seen with RTX stimulation of G618W and M644I were recapitulated in the capsaicin-evoked YO-PRO1 uptake assay. Curiously, the M644A substitution resulted in a loss, rather than a gain, in capsaicin-evoked YO-PRO1 uptake. Modeling of our mutations onto the recently determined TRPV1 structure revealed several plausible mechanisms for the phenotypes observed. We conclude that side chain interactions at a few specific loci within the TRPV1 pore contribute to the dynamic process of ionic selectivity. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Inc. Published.


Nam Y.,Kyungpook National University | Kim J.-H.,Kyungpook National University | Seo M.,Kyungpook National University | Seo M.,Dongguk University | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2014

Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) plays an important role in cellular processes as diverse as cell growth, migration/invasion, differentiation, and death/survival. Furthermore, recent studies indicate that LCN2 expression and secretion by glial cells are induced by inflammatory stimuli in the central nervous system. The present study was undertaken to examine the regulation of LCN2 expression in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and to determine the role of LCN2 in the disease process. LCN2 expression was found to be strongly increased in spinal cord and secondary lymphoid tissues after EAE induction. In spinal cords astrocytes and microglia were the major cell types expressing LCN2 and its receptor 24p3R, respectively, whereas in spleens, LCN2 and 24p3R were highly expressed in neutrophils and dendritic cells, respectively. Furthermore, disease severity, inflammatory infiltration, demyelination, glial activation, the expression of inflammatory mediators, and the proliferation of MOG-specific T cells were significantly attenuated in Lcn2-deficient mice as compared with wild-type animals. Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-specific T cells in culture exhibited an increased expression of Il17a, Ifng, Rorc, and Tbet after treatment with recombinant LCN2 protein. Moreover, LCN2-treated glial cells expressed higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and MMP-9. Adoptive transfer and recombinant LCN2 protein injection experiments suggested that LCN2 expression in spinal cord and peripheral immune organs contributes to EAE development. Taken together, these results imply LCN2 is a critical mediator of autoimmune inflammation and disease development in EAE and suggest that LCN2 be regarded a potential therapeutic target in multiple sclerosis. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.


Caterina M.J.,Neurosurgery Pain Research Institute
ACS Chemical Neuroscience | Year: 2014

In the skin, cannabinoid lipids, whether of endogenous or exogenous origin, are capable of regulating numerous sensory, homeostatic, and inflammatory events. Although many of these effects are mediated by metabotropic cannabinoid receptors, a growing body of evidence has revealed that multiple members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel family can act as "ionotropic cannabinoid receptors". Furthermore, many of these same TRP channels are intimately involved in cutaneous processes that include the initiation of pain, temperature, and itch perception, the maintenance of epidermal homeostasis, the regulation of hair follicles and sebaceous glands, and the modulation of dermatitis. Ionotropic cannabinoid receptors therefore represent potentially attractive targets for the therapeutic use of cannabinoids to treat sensory and dermatological diseases. Furthermore, the interactions between neurons and other cell types that are mediated by cutaneous ionotropic cannabinoid receptors are likely to be recapitulated during physiological and pathophysiological processes in the central nervous system and elsewhere, making the skin an ideal setting in which to dissect general complexities of cannabinoid signaling. (Figure Presented). © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Qu L.,Yale University | Qu L.,Neurosurgery Pain Research Institute | Fu K.,Yale University | Yang J.,Yale University | And 2 more authors.
Pain | Year: 2015

Persistent itch is a common symptom of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and represents a significant health burden. The chemokine CXCL10 is predominantly produced by epithelial cells during ACD. Although the chemokine CXCL10 and its receptor CXCR3 are implicated in the pathophysiology of ACD, it is largely unexplored for itch and pain accompanying this disorder. Here, we showed that CXCL10 and CXCR3 mRNA, protein, and signaling activity were upregulated in the dorsal root ganglion after contact hypersensitivity (CHS), a murine model of ACD, induced by squaric acid dibutylester. CXCL10 directly activated a subset of cutaneous dorsal root ganglion neurons innervating the area of CHS through neuronal CXCR3. In behavioral tests, a CXCR3 antagonist attenuated spontaneous itch- but not pain-like behaviors directed to the site of CHS. Injection of CXCL10 into the site of CHS elicited site-directed itch- but not pain-like behaviors, but neither type of CXCL10-evoked behaviors was observed in control mice. These results suggest that CXCL10/CXCR3 signaling mediates allergic itch but not inflammatory pain in the context of skin inflammation. Thus, upregulation of CXCL10/CXCR3 signaling in sensory neurons may contribute to itch associated with ACD. Targeting the CXCL10/CXCR3 signaling might be beneficial for the treatment of allergic itch. © 2015 International Association for the Study of Pain.


PubMed | Neurosurgery Pain Research Institute
Type: Review | Journal: Pharmaceuticals (Basel, Switzerland) | Year: 2016

Ion channels of the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) family mediate the influx of monovalent and/or divalent cations into cells in response to a host of chemical or physical stimuli. In the skin, TRP channels are expressed in many cell types, including keratinocytes, sensory neurons, melanocytes, and immune/inflammatory cells. Within these diverse cell types, TRP channels participate in physiological processes ranging from sensation to skin homeostasis. In addition, there is a growing body of evidence implicating abnormal TRP channel function, as a product of excessive or deficient channel activity, in pathological skin conditions such as chronic pain and itch, dermatitis, vitiligo, alopecia, wound healing, skin carcinogenesis, and skin barrier compromise. These diverse functions, coupled with the fact that many TRP channels possess pharmacologically accessible sites, make this family of proteins appealing therapeutic targets for skin disorders.


PubMed | Neurosurgery Pain Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: ACS chemical neuroscience | Year: 2014

In the skin, cannabinoid lipids, whether of endogenous or exogenous origin, are capable of regulating numerous sensory, homeostatic, and inflammatory events. Although many of these effects are mediated by metabotropic cannabinoid receptors, a growing body of evidence has revealed that multiple members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel family can act as ionotropic cannabinoid receptors. Furthermore, many of these same TRP channels are intimately involved in cutaneous processes that include the initiation of pain, temperature, and itch perception, the maintenance of epidermal homeostasis, the regulation of hair follicles and sebaceous glands, and the modulation of dermatitis. Ionotropic cannabinoid receptors therefore represent potentially attractive targets for the therapeutic use of cannabinoids to treat sensory and dermatological diseases. Furthermore, the interactions between neurons and other cell types that are mediated by cutaneous ionotropic cannabinoid receptors are likely to be recapitulated during physiological and pathophysiological processes in the central nervous system and elsewhere, making the skin an ideal setting in which to dissect general complexities of cannabinoid signaling.

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