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Montefiore dell'Aso, Italy

Costa P.,Section of Clinical Neurophysiology | Peretta P.,Pediatric Neurosurgery | Faccani G.,Neurosurgery
European Spine Journal

Purpose The combined recordings of epidural-(D wave) and muscle motor evoked potentials (m-MEPs) have been proposed in many studies in intramedullary spinal cord tumour (IMSCT) surgery, although not all agree. Furthermore, the usefulness of the intraoperative monitoring of motor systems using these methods in other types of spine surgery has not yet been clearly confirmed. The aim of this study is to test the impact of intraoperative D wave on the monitorability and motor outcome in spine surgery. Methods Intraoperative recording of posterior tibial nerve somatosensory potentials, lower limb m-MEPs (LLm- MEPs) and epidurally recorded D wave caudally to the surgical level was attempted in a total of 103 spine and spinal cord surgeries (23 IMSCT, 55 extramedullary spinal cord tumours and 25 myelopathies). Results There was a 97.1 %, overall monitorability where at least 1 of the 3 modalities was applicable in 100 surgical procedures. Baseline LLm-MEPs were recorded bilaterally in 85 cases and unilaterally in 11. A caudal D wave was recorded in 97 cases. Transient, or persistent intraoperative modifications occurred in 14/23 IMSCT, 5/55 extramedullary spinal cord tumours and in 2/25 myelopathies. The presence of a persistent stable caudal D wave was predictive of a good motor outcome even when the LL-MEPs were absent and/or when lost during surgery. Conclusions Not only is intraoperative D wave recording to be considered mandatory in IMSCT surgery but it should also be attempted in other types of spine/spinal cord surgeries. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012. Source

Gekht G.,Pain Management | Nottmeier E.W.,Neurosurgery | Lamer T.J.,Pain Medicine
Pain Medicine (United States)

Objective: To report an unusual complication following lumbar facet radiofrequency denervation and describe a successful, minimally invasive treatment of a presumed medial branch neuroma. Summary of Background Data: Radiofrequency medial branch neurotomy is a common procedure for the treatment of mechanical back pain. Deafferentation injury and neuroma formation is well known and reported following chemical, surgical, and cryoablation neurolysis; however, it is thought to be rare with radiofrequency ablation. When this problem is encountered, treatment options appear to be limited. Further radiofrequency ablations may be ineffective and indeed may cause further injury. Methods: A 17-year-old male who sustained a traumatic fracture of the right L3-4 facet joint presented with increasing back pain after multiple radiofrequency ablations of the medial branches of the L2 and L3 dorsal rami. The description of the back pain, initially nociceptive in nature, had become progressively neuropathic with clear focal areas of allodynia and hyperesthesia. Further medial branch radiofrequency denervation was found to be ineffective. Results: Diagnostic block of the right medial branch of the L2 dorsal ramus provided the patient with total relief of pain. This was followed by a minimally invasive open surgical ablation of the L2 medial branch neuroma using three-dimensional, fluoroscopy-based image guidance. At 7 months of follow-up, the patient reported complete resolution of pain, discontinuation of all pain medications, and return to all previous physical activities.pme_851 1179.1182 Conclusion: Deafferentation injury is a rare but recognized complication of chemical, surgical, and thermal neuroablation. This case report presents a rare instance of presumed neuroma formation following multiple radiofrequency ablations for the treatment of facet-generated mechanical back pain. Open and minimally invasive medial branch neurectomy resulted in complete resolution of pain and return to baseline function. Source

Yamakami I.,Chiba Central Medical Center | Ito S.,Neurosurgery | Higuchi Y.,Chiba University
Journal of Neurosurgery

Object. Management of small acoustic neuromas (ANs) consists of 3 options: observation with imaging followup, radiosurgery, and/or tumor removal. The authors report the long-term outcomes and preservation of function after retrosigmoid tumor removal in 44 patients and clarify the management paradigm for small ANs. Methods. A total of 44 consecutively enrolled patients with small ANs and preserved hearing underwent retrosigmoid tumor removal in an attempt to preserve hearing and facial function by use of intraoperative auditory monitoring of auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) and cochlear nerve compound action potentials (CNAPs). All patients were younger than 70 years of age, had a small AN (purely intracanalicular/cerebellopontine angle tumor ≤ 15 mm), and had serviceable hearing preoperatively. According to the guidelines of the Committee on Hearing and Equilibrium of the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation, preoperative hearing levels of the 44 patients were as follows: Class A, 19 patients; Class B, 17; and Class C, 8. The surgical technique for curative tumor removal with preservation of hearing and facial function included sharp dissection and debulking of the tumor, reconstruction of the internal auditory canal, and wide removal of internal auditory canal dura. Results. For all patients, tumors were totally removed without incidence of facial palsy, death, or other complications. Total tumor removal was confirmed by the first postoperative Gd-enhanced MRI performed 12 months after surgery. Postoperative hearing levels were Class A, 5 patients; Class B, 21; Class C, 11; and Class D, 7. Postoperatively, serviceable (Class A, B, or C) and useful (Class A or B) levels of hearing were preserved for 84% and 72% of patients, respectively. Better preoperative hearing resulted in higher rates of postoperative hearing preservation (p = 0.01); preservation rates were 95% among patients with preoperative Class A hearing, 88% among Class B, and 50% among Class C. Reliable monitoring was more frequently provided by CNAPs than by ABRs (66% vs 32%, p < 0.01), and consistently reliable auditory monitoring was significantly associated with better rates of preservation of useful hearing. Long-term follow-up by MRI with Gd administration (81 ± 43 months [range 5-181 months]; median 7 years) showed no tumor recurrence, and although the preserved hearing declined minimally over the long-term postoperative follow-up period (from 39 ± 15 dB to 45 ± 11 dB in 5.1 ± 3.1 years), 80% of useful hearing and 100% of serviceable hearing remained at the same level. Conclusions. As a result of a surgical technique that involved sharp dissection and internal auditory canal reconstruction with intraoperative auditory monitoring, retrosigmoid removal of small ANs can lead to successful curative tumor removal without long-term recurrence and with excellent functional outcome. Thus, the authors suggest that tumor removal should be the first-line management strategy for younger patients with small ANs and preserved hearing. ©AANS, 2014. Source

Hirshberg R.M.,Neurosurgery
Medicine and Law

A full appreciation of the development of current concepts concerning the "Shaken Baby Syndrome" requires a systematic review of historic and more recent interpretations of scientific data that form the bases for diagnosis in these cases. This discussion relates to the dilemma in determining the cause of shaking injuries in this age group that are not obviously accidental or inflicted. The cases in question can present with similar clinical and pathological findings and possibly result from innocent activity. Shaking of infants and children for any reason should be avoided. Debates related to the circumstances and forces required for the development of intracranial and ophthalmic pathology as a result of shaking are discussed. References to the application of "markers of abuse" and other criteria in determining guilt or innocence in these specific situations are presented and evaluated. © PROBOOK 2010. Source

Payer M.,Neurosurgery | Payer M.,University of Geneva | Bruhlhart K.,Trauma Center
Journal of Clinical Neuroscience

Extradural arachnoid cysts of the spine are a rare cause of spinal cord and nerve root compression, usually in the mid to lower thoracic spine and at the thoraco-lumbar junction in a posterior position. Local pain and myelopathy occur predominantly in young adults, and MRI reveals a well-demarcated extradural lesion, iso-intense to cerebrospinal fluid. We report a 33-year-old woman with an extradural arachnoid cyst from T11 to L1 and review the surgical techniques reported in the literature. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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