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Aix-en-Provence, France

Revel F.G.,Hoffmann-La Roche | Meyer C.A.,Hoffmann-La Roche | Bradaia A.,Neuroservice | Jeanneau K.,Hoffmann-La Roche | And 11 more authors.
Neuropsychopharmacology | Year: 2012

Trace amines (TAs) such as β-phenylethylamine, p-tyramine, or tryptamine are biogenic amines found in the brain at low concentrations that have been implicated in various neuropsychiatric disorders like schizophrenia, depression, or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. TAs are ligands for the recently identified trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1), an important modulator of monoamine neurotransmission. Here, we sought to investigate the consequences of TAAR1 hypersignaling by generating a transgenic mouse line overexpressing Taar1 specifically in neurons. Taar1 transgenic mice did not show overt behavioral abnormalities under baseline conditions, despite augmented extracellular levels of dopamine and noradrenaline in the accumbens nucleus (Acb) and of serotonin in the medial prefrontal cortex. In vitro, this was correlated with an elevated spontaneous firing rate of monoaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area, dorsal raphe nucleus, and locus coeruleus as the result of ectopic TAAR1 expression. Furthermore, Taar1 transgenic mice were hyposensitive to the psychostimulant effects of amphetamine, as it produced only a weak locomotor activation and failed to alter catecholamine release in the Acb. Attenuating TAAR1 activity with the selective partial agonist RO5073012 restored the stimulating effects of amphetamine on locomotion. Overall, these data show that Taar1 brain overexpression causes hyposensitivity to amphetamine and alterations of monoaminergic neurotransmission. These observations confirm the modulatory role of TAAR1 on monoamine activity and suggest that in vivo the receptor is either constitutively active and/or tonically activated by ambient levels of endogenous agonist(s). © 2012 American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. Source


Revel F.G.,Hoffmann-La Roche | Moreau J.-L.,Hoffmann-La Roche | Pouzet B.,Hoffmann-La Roche | Mory R.,Hoffmann-La Roche | And 16 more authors.
Molecular Psychiatry | Year: 2013

Schizophrenia is a chronic, severe and highly complex mental illness. Current treatments manage the positive symptoms, yet have minimal effects on the negative and cognitive symptoms, two prominent features of the disease with critical impact on the long-term morbidity. In addition, antipsychotic treatments trigger serious side effects that precipitate treatment discontinuation. Here, we show that activation of the trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1), a modulator of monoaminergic neurotransmission, represents a novel therapeutic option. In rodents, activation of TAAR1 by two novel and pharmacologically distinct compounds, the full agonist RO5256390 and the partial agonist RO5263397, blocks psychostimulant-induced hyperactivity and produces a brain activation pattern reminiscent of the antipsychotic drug olanzapine, suggesting antipsychotic-like properties. TAAR1 agonists do not induce catalepsy or weight gain; RO5263397 even reduced haloperidol-induced catalepsy and prevented olanzapine from increasing body weight and fat accumulation. Finally, TAAR1 activation promotes vigilance in rats and shows pro-cognitive and antidepressant-like properties in rodent and primate models. These data suggest that TAAR1 agonists may provide a novel and differentiated treatment of schizophrenia as compared with current medication standards: TAAR1 agonists may improve not only the positive symptoms but also the negative symptoms and cognitive deficits, without causing adverse effects such as motor impairments or weight gain. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved. Source


Beaumont V.,CHDI Management CHDI Foundation | Park L.,CHDI Management CHDI Foundation | Rassoulpour A.,Brains On line LLC | Dijkman U.,Brains On line LLC | And 12 more authors.
PLoS Currents | Year: 2014

Huntington's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the CAG tract of huntingtin. Several studies in HD cellular and rodent systems have identified disturbances in cyclic nucleotide signaling, which might be relevant to pathogenesis and therapeutic intervention. To investigate whether selective phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors can improve some aspects of disease pathogenesis in HD models, we have systematically evaluated the effects of a variety of cAMP and cGMP selective PDE inhibitors in various HD models. Here we present the lack of effect in a variety of endpoints of the PDE subtype selective inhibitor SCH-51866, a PDE1/5 inhibitor, in the R6/2 mouse model of HD, after chronic oral dosing. Source


Mielcarek M.,Kings College London | Landles C.,Kings College London | Weiss A.,Novartis | Bradaia A.,Neuroservice | And 18 more authors.
PLoS Biology | Year: 2013

Histone deacetylase (HDAC) 4 is a transcriptional repressor that contains a glutamine-rich domain. We hypothesised that it may be involved in the molecular pathogenesis of Huntington's disease (HD), a protein-folding neurodegenerative disorder caused by an aggregation-prone polyglutamine expansion in the huntingtin protein. We found that HDAC4 associates with huntingtin in a polyglutamine-length-dependent manner and co-localises with cytoplasmic inclusions. We show that HDAC4 reduction delayed cytoplasmic aggregate formation, restored Bdnf transcript levels, and rescued neuronal and cortico-striatal synaptic function in HD mouse models. This was accompanied by an improvement in motor coordination, neurological phenotypes, and increased lifespan. Surprisingly, HDAC4 reduction had no effect on global transcriptional dysfunction and did not modulate nuclear huntingtin aggregation. Our results define a crucial role for the cytoplasmic aggregation process in the molecular pathology of HD. HDAC4 reduction presents a novel strategy for targeting huntingtin aggregation, which may be amenable to small-molecule therapeutics. © 2013 Mielcarek et al. Source


Hernandez-Hernandez O.,University of Paris Descartes | Hernandez-Hernandez O.,Instituto Nacional Of Rehabilitacio N | Guiraud-Dogan C.,University of Paris Descartes | Sicot G.,University of Paris Descartes | And 29 more authors.
Brain | Year: 2013

Myotonic dystrophy type 1 is a complex multisystemic inherited disorder, which displays multiple debilitating neurological manifestations. Despite recent progress in the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of myotonic dystrophy type 1 in skeletal muscle and heart, the pathways affected in the central nervous system are largely unknown. To address this question, we studied the only transgenic mouse line expressing CTG trinucleotide repeats in the central nervous system. These mice recreate molecular features of RNA toxicity, such as RNA foci accumulation and missplicing. They exhibit relevant behavioural and cognitive phenotypes, deficits in short-term synaptic plasticity, as well as changes in neurochemical levels. In the search for disease intermediates affected by disease mutation, a global proteomics approach revealed RAB3A upregulation and synapsin I hyperphosphorylation in the central nervous system of transgenic mice, transfected cells and post-mortem brains of patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1. These protein defects were associated with electrophysiological and behavioural deficits in mice and altered spontaneous neurosecretion in cell culture. Taking advantage of a relevant transgenic mouse of a complex human disease, we found a novel connection between physiological phenotypes and synaptic protein dysregulation, indicative of synaptic dysfunction in myotonic dystrophy type 1 brain pathology. © 2013 The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. Source

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